Sensations perceived by the taste buds on the tongue
Where are taste buds found?
roof of mouth
How many recepter cells are on each taste buds?
60 to 100
How often does the body regenerate taste buds?
every 3 days
What are the 5 basic taste sensations?
savory, sometimes meaty sensation
behaviors of a certain social, ethnic, or age group
science that studies nutrients and other substances in foods and in the body and the way those nutrients relate to health and disease. Also explores why you choose particular foods and the type of diet you eat
the nourishing substances in food that provide energy and promote the growth and maintenance of your body
the food and beverages you normally eat and drink
A measure of the energy in food, specificaly the energy-yielding nutrients
The minimum energy needed by the body for vital functions when at rest and awake
Thermic effect of food
The energy needed to digest and absorb food
How do you determine the number of kilocalories in a food?
by burning a portion of that food and measuring the amount of heat (or kilocalories) it produces. A kilocalorie raises the temp of 1 kilogram of water 1 degree celsius
Name the 6 classes of nutrients
What are Energy-Yielding Nutrients?
Nutrients that can be burned as fuel to provide energy for the body, including carbohydrates, fats, and proteins
What are micronutrients?
Nutrients needed by the body in small amounts, including vitamins and minerals
What are macronutrients?
Nutrients needed by the body in large amounts, including carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins
Organic as it applies to chemistry
Any compound that contains carbon
Inorganic as it applies to chemistry
Any compound that does not contain carbon
A large class of nutrients, including sugars, starch, and fibers, that function as the body's primary source of energy
A group of fatty substances, including triglycerides and cholesterol, that are soluble in fat, not water, and that provide a rich source of energy and structure to cells.
How many kilocalories per gram in Carbohydrates?
4 kcalories per gram
How many kcalories per gram in Lipids?
9 kcalories per gram
How many kcalories per gram in Protein?
4 kcalories per gram
Major structural component of the body's cells that is made of nitrogen-containing amino acids assembled in chains, particularly rich in animal food
Noncaloric, organic nutrients found in a wide variety of foods taht are essential in small quantities to regulate body processes, maintain the body, and allow growth and reproduction.
Noncaloric, inorganic chemical substances found in a wide variety of foods; needed to regulate body processes, maintain body, and allow growth and reproduction.
Nutrients that either cannot be made in the body or cannot be made in the quantities needed by the body--we must obtain them from food
A measure of the nutrients provided in a food per kcalorie of that food
Empty kcalorie foods
foods that provide few nutrients for the number of kcalories they contain.
What determines the number of kcalories you need?
your level of physical activity
thermic effect of food
Name the four characteristics of a nutritious diet
a diet that provides enough kcalories, essential nutrients, and fiber to keep a person healthy
a diet that avoids excessive amounts of kcalories or any particular food or nutrient.
A diet in which foods are chosen to provide kcalories, essential nutrients, and fiber in the right proprotions.
A diet in which you eat a wide selebtion of foods to get necessary nutrients
Dietary reference intake (DRIs)
Nutrient standards that include four lists of values for dietary nutrient intakes of healthy Americans and Canadians
Estimated Average Requirement (EAR)
The dietary intake value that is estimated to meet the requirement of half the healthy indvidiuals in a group
Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA)
The dietary intake value that is sufficient to meet the nutrient requirements of 96 to 98 percent of all healthy individuals in a group
Adequate Intake (AI)
The dietary intake that is used when there is not enough scientific research to support an RDA
Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL)
The maximum intake level above which the risk of toxicity would increase
Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Range (AMDR)
The percent of total kilocalories coming from carbohydrate, fat, or protein that is associated with a reduced risk of chronic disease while providing adequate intake
What is the body's composition?
The process by which food is broken down into its components in the mouth, stomach, and small intestine with the help of digestive enzymes
Compounds that speed up the breaking down of food so that nutrients can be absorbed. Also perform other funtions in the body.
The passage of digested nutrients through the walls of the intestines or stomach into the body's cells. Nutrients are then transported through the body via blood or lymph
All the chemical processes by which nutrients are used to support life.
The metabolic process by which body tissues and substances are built
The metabolic processes by which large, complex molecules are converted to simpler ones.
A hollow tube running down the middle of the body in which digestion of food and absorption of nutrients take place.
A fluid secreted into the mouth from the salivary glands that contains important digestive enzymes and lubricates the food so that it may readily pass down the esophagus
A ball of chewed food that travels from the mouth through the esophagus to the stomach
A passageway that connects the oral and nasal cavities to the esophagus and air tubes to the lungs.
The flap that covers the air tubes to the lungs so that food does not enter the lungs during swallowing.
The muscular tube that connects the pharynx to the stomach
Involuntary muscular contration that forces food through the entire digestive system
Lower esophageal (cardiac) sphincter
A muscle that relaxes and contracts to move food from the esophagus into the stomach
J-shaped muscular sac
holds 4 cups of food when full
prepares food chemically and mechanically so that it can be further digested and absorbed
strong acid made by stomach
Aids in protein digestion
destroys harmful bacteria
increases ability of calcium and iron to be absorbed
semi-liquid mixture in stomach
contains partially digested food and secretions
Muscle that permits passage of chyme from the stomach to the small intestine
digestive tract organ
extends from stomach to opening of large intestine
1st segment of small intestine
about 1 foot long
2nd segment of small intestine
between duodenum and ileum
final segment of small intestine
substance made by liver
stored in galbladder
released when fat enters the small intestine to help digest fat
tiny fingerlike projections in the wall of the small intestines
involved in absorption
Microvilli (brush border)
hair-like projections on the villi
increase the surface area for absorbing nutrients
Large intesting (Colon)
Part of GI tract between small intestine and rectum
last section of the large intestine
where feces is stored until elimination
opening of the digestive tract
where feces travels out of body
Flavor influences food choices by...
Other aspects of food that influence what you eat....