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Deviance is _______.
What does the Control Theory tell us?
conformity depends on strong bonds between individuals and society
What are the four elements of social bonds?
What is attachment as it relates to deviance?
stronger attachment, less likely to deviate
What is involvement as it relates to deviance?
more participation in apporoved activities, less likely to deviate
What is commitment as it relates to deviance?
greater commitment to social goals, less likely to deviate
What is belief as it relates to deviance?
stronger belief in norms/values, less likely to deviate
What are three negative effects of deviance?
- erosion of trust
- causes nonconforming behavior in others
What are two factors of expense?
- paying for grafetti (economical)
- the toll on victim and family (emotional)
What is primary deviance?
- Ocassionaly deviant (breaks folkways).
- Deviance is not part of someone's lifestyle
What is secondary deviance?
life and identity are organized around breaking norms
What are the four classifications of crime? Give an example for each.
- Violent Crime (rape, assult)
- Property Crime (theft)
- Victimless Crime (prostitution)
- White Collar Crime (embellizment)
What are corrections?
Sanctions that society applies to convicted criminals
List and define the four purposes corrections ideally fulfill.
- retribution (payback)
- deterrence (gets you to stop)
- incapacitation (takes freedom away)
- rehabilitation (teaches rules of society)
What is recidivism?
repeated crime by those who have been convicted before.
Deviance is distributed ____________, which leads to ___________ and ____________.
unevenly; sterotypes; profiling
What are sanctions?
Rewards and punishments used to bring about desired behavior
What is one type of a positive formal sanction and a negative formal sanction?
- positive formal: bonus
- negative formal: imprisonment
What is one type of a positve informal sanction and a negative informal sanction?
- positive informal: praise
- negative informal: ridicule
What does Robert Merton's Strain Theory of Deviance say?
Individuals are strained when they are unable/unwilling to obtain cultural goals b/c they don't have access to or are unwilling to achieve those goals in a culturally accepted way.
What are the five types in the Strain Theory of Deviance?
Do conformists accept/reject cultural goals? What about the culturally approved means of achieving them? What is an example?
accept; accept (9-5 job)
Do innovators accept/reject cultural goals? What about the culturally approved means of achieving them? What is an example?
accet; reject (burgular)
Do ritualists accept/reject cultural goals? What about the culturally approved means of achieving them?
reject; accept ex. social worker
Do retreatists accept/reject cultural goals? What about the culturally approved means of achieving them? What is an example?
reject; reject (hippies)
Do rebels accept/reject cultural goals? What about the culturally approved means of achieving them? What is an example?
reject/accept; reject/accept (challenge system)
What is Becker's Labelling Theory based on? (2)
- evidence of deviance
- perception of the individual
What are the four labels in Becker's Labelling Theory?
- Secret Deviant
- Falsely Accused
- Pure Deviant
Why is the Falsely Accused the most difficult label to be?
- Falsely accused becomes pure deviant.
- shunned by conformists and secret deviants
- already blamed might as well be a deviant
What three things are needed for deviance to exist?
- a norm to break
- a norm breaker
- a witness
What are the four causes of deviance? Give an example for each.
- Conflicting norms (change in environment)
- Poor Socialization (deviant role models)
- Too Much Stress (survival)
- Impossible Goals (must do well in school so people cheat)
the belief that deviants have anegative effect on conformists
What is profiling?
using negative sterotypes to judge categories of people
What are informal sanctions carried out by?
What is the main goal of behavior modification programs?
to restore family unity for households in which children are out of control