Sociology: Unit 2 (Deviance)

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alipeace11
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74615
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Sociology: Unit 2 (Deviance)
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2011-06-05 10:34:06
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sociology
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sociology
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  1. Deviance is _______.
    relative
  2. What does the Control Theory tell us?
    conformity depends on strong bonds between individuals and society
  3. What are the four elements of social bonds?
    • attachment
    • commitment
    • involvement
    • belief
  4. What is attachment as it relates to deviance?
    stronger attachment, less likely to deviate
  5. What is involvement as it relates to deviance?
    more participation in apporoved activities, less likely to deviate
  6. What is commitment as it relates to deviance?
    greater commitment to social goals, less likely to deviate
  7. What is belief as it relates to deviance?
    stronger belief in norms/values, less likely to deviate
  8. What are three negative effects of deviance?
    • erosion of trust
    • causes nonconforming behavior in others
    • expense
  9. What are two factors of expense?
    • paying for grafetti (economical)
    • the toll on victim and family (emotional)
  10. What is primary deviance?
    • Ocassionaly deviant (breaks folkways).
    • Deviance is not part of someone's lifestyle
  11. What is secondary deviance?
    life and identity are organized around breaking norms
  12. What are the four classifications of crime? Give an example for each.
    • Violent Crime (rape, assult)
    • Property Crime (theft)
    • Victimless Crime (prostitution)
    • White Collar Crime (embellizment)
  13. What are corrections?
    Sanctions that society applies to convicted criminals
  14. List and define the four purposes corrections ideally fulfill.
    • retribution (payback)
    • deterrence (gets you to stop)
    • incapacitation (takes freedom away)
    • rehabilitation (teaches rules of society)
  15. What is recidivism?
    repeated crime by those who have been convicted before.
  16. Deviance is distributed ____________, which leads to ___________ and ____________.
    unevenly; sterotypes; profiling
  17. What are sanctions?
    Rewards and punishments used to bring about desired behavior
  18. What is one type of a positive formal sanction and a negative formal sanction?
    • positive formal: bonus
    • negative formal: imprisonment
  19. What is one type of a positve informal sanction and a negative informal sanction?
    • positive informal: praise
    • negative informal: ridicule
  20. What does Robert Merton's Strain Theory of Deviance say?
    Individuals are strained when they are unable/unwilling to obtain cultural goals b/c they don't have access to or are unwilling to achieve those goals in a culturally accepted way.
  21. What are the five types in the Strain Theory of Deviance?
    • conformists
    • innovators
    • ritualists
    • retreatists
    • rebels
  22. Do conformists accept/reject cultural goals? What about the culturally approved means of achieving them? What is an example?
    accept; accept (9-5 job)
  23. Do innovators accept/reject cultural goals? What about the culturally approved means of achieving them? What is an example?
    accet; reject (burgular)
  24. Do ritualists accept/reject cultural goals? What about the culturally approved means of achieving them?
    reject; accept ex. social worker
  25. Do retreatists accept/reject cultural goals? What about the culturally approved means of achieving them? What is an example?
    reject; reject (hippies)
  26. Do rebels accept/reject cultural goals? What about the culturally approved means of achieving them? What is an example?
    reject/accept; reject/accept (challenge system)
  27. What is Becker's Labelling Theory based on? (2)
    • evidence of deviance
    • perception of the individual
  28. What are the four labels in Becker's Labelling Theory?
    • Conformist
    • Secret Deviant
    • Falsely Accused
    • Pure Deviant
  29. Why is the Falsely Accused the most difficult label to be?
    • Falsely accused becomes pure deviant.
    • shunned by conformists and secret deviants
    • already blamed might as well be a deviant
  30. What three things are needed for deviance to exist?
    • a norm to break
    • a norm breaker
    • a witness
  31. What are the four causes of deviance? Give an example for each.
    • Conflicting norms (change in environment)
    • Poor Socialization (deviant role models)
    • Too Much Stress (survival)
    • Impossible Goals (must do well in school so people cheat)
  32. differencial association
    the belief that deviants have anegative effect on conformists
  33. What is profiling?
    using negative sterotypes to judge categories of people
  34. What are informal sanctions carried out by?
    public sentiment
  35. What is the main goal of behavior modification programs?
    to restore family unity for households in which children are out of control

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