Evolution 2

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  1. Adaptation
    -heritable trait taht increases the fitness of an individual in a particular environment relative to those lacking the trait
  2. Natural Selection
    • -ends with adaptation
    • -NOT physiological (ex. warm weather, different genes turned on)

    • Precondition:
    • 1. must be a heritable variation in a population
  3. Modern Synthesis
    • -1930-1940
    • -argued that population processes (mutation, recombination, natural selection) account for the orgin of species
  4. Darwinian Evolution
    • -change in genetic makeup of a poptulation over time
    • -driven by natural selection
  5. Mutation
    • -Incorrect replication: spontaneous
    • -Chemical/radiation mutations: induced
  6. Mutation on DNA
    • -mismatching DNA pairs.
    • -proof reading andr repair enzymes help
    • -not mutation until its stuck forever

    • ex. substitution (transition-similar, transverson)
    • -frameshift (deletion, insertion)
    • -inversion (flipping 180)
    • -reciprocal translocatoin (break DNA and reinsert somewhere else)

    • nonsynonymous: change
    • synonymous: no change
  7. mutation rate and natural selection
    • -mutation in repair enzymes cause 100-1000x higer mutation rate
    • -high mutation rate under changed conditions can be an advantage
  8. mutations on fitness
    • -most lead to death
    • -deleterious- incorrect protein, no protein, homeotic mutations
    • -reduce by 2%
    • -neurtral mutations- no effect on fitness, silent
    • -positive
    • -rare (ex. mutate to grow better at different conditions)
  9. obtaining new genes
    -unequal crossing over
    -transposable elements
    -gene duplications
    -chromosome mutations
    -genome duplication
    • -unequal crossing over: prophase, meiosis 1- lose gene
    • -transposable elements: jumping genes
    • -gene duplications: only need 1 to do function, other can mutate
    • -chromosome mutations: inversion (ABCDE to ABEDC)
    • -good evidence for natrual selection
    • -genome duplication: may create new species, masive gene duplication
  10. mutation random
    -respect to selective advantage
    -respect to postion in genome
    • selective advantage
    • -yes, mutations do NOT occur due to need
    • postion
    • -no, mutational hot spots (due to unusual character)
  11. gene pool
    • -total of all the alleles of a gene that occur in a population
    • -same species = same genes
    • -the alleles of these genes may vary
  12. phenotypic variation
    • environment causes change in phenotype
    • -ex coloring
  13. Hardy Weinberg
    -conditions on which a population will NOT evolve

    -within popluations (group of interbreeding individuals and thier offspring)

    • -large populations with random mating, allele frequences remain constant
    • -allele: p +q = 1
    • -genotype: p2 +2pq + q2 = 1

    • Population NOT to evolve:
    • -no mutation
    • -no migration
    • -no natural selection
    • -large population size
    • -random mating
  14. Population genetic structure can change by
    • -mutation
    • -migration
    • -natural selection: certain genotypes produce more offspring, causes divergence, leads to adaptation
    • -genetic drift: due to chance alone
    • -non random mating: interbreeding cause heterozygous to disapper and homo to appear
  15. genetic drift
    -founder effect
    • -isolated colonies are founded by a small number of individuals
    • -allele frequences may be different than large group
  16. variation amount popluations of same species
    • sympatric: populations overlap in distribution
    • parapatric: adjacent populations
    • allopatric: populations w/ isolated distributions
  17. clinal variation
    change in character or allele frequencies over geographic distance
  18. fixed difference
    on population having an allele and not the other popluation

Card Set Information

Evolution 2
2010-02-20 20:21:27
mutation adaptation hardy weinberg

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