Bio-20 Vocab

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raider
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74636
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Bio-20 Vocab
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2011-03-29 23:54:01
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Protists Vocab
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  1. protist
    any organism that is not a plant, animal, fungus, or a prokaryote
  2. *What are protists?
    *Protists ared eukaryotes that are not members of the kingdom Plantae, Animalia, or Fungi.
  3. *What of the four major phyla of animal-like protists? How do members of each of these groups move?
    *Animal-like protists that swim using flagella are classified in the phylum Zoomastigina and are often referred to as zooflagellates.
  4. pseudopods
    temporary projection of cytoplasm, or a "false foot," used by some protists for feeding or movemen
  5. *What of the four major phyla of animal-like protists? How do members of each of these groups move?
    *Sarcodines are animal-like protists that use pseudopods for feeding and movement.
  6. amoeboid movement
    type of location used by amoebas
  7. food vacuole
    small cavity in the cytoplasm that temporarily stores fooddw
  8. cilia
    short hairlike projections similar flagella
  9. *What of the four major phyla of animal-like protists? How do members of each of these groups move?
    *Members of the phylum Ciliophora, known as ciliates, use cilia for feeding and movement.
  10. trichocysts
    very small, bottle shaped structures used for defense
  11. macronucleus
    site for keeping multiple copies of most genes that the cell needs in its day-to-day existence
  12. micronucleus
    contains reserve copy of all of the cell's genes
  13. gullet
    indentation in one side of the organsim that ciliates sweep food particles into
  14. anal pore
    waste materials are emptied into the environment when the food vacuole fuses with a region of the cell membrane called the anal pore
  15. contractile vacuoles
    cavities in the cytoplasm that are specialized to collect water
  16. conjugation
    form of sexual process in which paramecia exchange genetic information
  17. *What of the four major phyla of animal-like protists? How do members of each of these groups move?
    *Members of the phylum Sporozoa do not move on their won and are parasitic
  18. *How do animal-like protists harm other living things?
    *Some animal-like protists cause serious diseases, including malaria and African sleeping sickness
  19. acessory pigments
    compounds that absorb light at different wave lengths than chlorophyll
  20. *What do chlorophpyll and accessory pigments do in algae?
    *Chlorophyll and accessory pigments allow algae to harvest and use the energy from the sunlight.
  21. *What are the four phlyla of unicellular plantlike protists?
    *Euglenophytes are plantlike protists that have two flagella but no cell wall.
  22. eyespot
    cluster of reddish pigment that helps the organism find snulight to power photosynthesis
  23. pellicle
    intricate cell membrane
  24. *What are the four phlyla of unicellular plantlike protists?
    *Members of the phylum Chrysophyta are a diverse group of plantlike protists that have gold-colored chloroplasts.
  25. *What are the four phlyla of unicellular plantlike protists?
    *Diatoms produce thin, delicate cell walls rich in silicon (Si)- the main component of glass.
  26. *What are the four phlyla of unicellular plantlike protists?
    *About half of the dinoflagellates are photosynthetic; the other half live as heterotrophs.
  27. phytoplankton
    the population of small phtosynthetic organisms found near ther surface of the ocean
  28. *Describe the main features of the major phyla of multicellular algae.
    *Red algae are able to live at great depths due to their efficiency in harvesting light energy. Red algae contain chlorophyll a and reddish accessort pigments called phycobilins.
  29. phycobilins
    especially good at absorbing blue light, enabling red algae to live deeper in the ocean than many other photosynthetic algae
  30. *Describe the main features of the major phyla of multicellular algae.
    *Brown algae contain chlorophyll a and c, as well as a brown accessory pigment, fucoxanthin.
  31. *Describe the main features of the major phyla of multicellular algae.
    *Green algae share many characteristics with plants, including their photosynthetic pigments and cell wall composition.
  32. filaments
    long threadlike colonies in which cells are stacked like aluminum cans from end to end
  33. *How do multicellular algae reproduce?
    *The life cycles of many algae include both a diploid and haploid generation.
  34. alteration of generations
    where algae switch back and forth between diploid and haploid stages during their life cycles
  35. gametophytes
    gamete-producing plants
  36. spores
    haploid reproductive cells
  37. sporophyte
    spore-producing organism
  38. *How are funguslike protists and fungi similar? How are they different?
    *Like fungi, the funguslike protists are heterotrophs that absorb nutrients from dead or decaying organic matter. But unlike most true fungi, funguslike protists have centrioles. They also lack the chitin cell walls of true fungi.
  39. *Compare acellular slime molds, cellular slime molds, and water molds.
    *Slime molds are funguslike protists that play key roles in recycling organic material.
  40. cellular slime molds
    separated by cell membranes; remain distinct during every phase of the mold's life cycle
  41. acellular slime molds
    molds that pass through a stage where their cells fuse to form large cells with many nuclei
  42. fruiting body
    slender reproductive structure that produces spores
  43. plasmodia
    single structure with many nuclei
  44. *Compare acellular slime molds, cellular slime molds, and water molds.
    *Oomycetes thrive on dead or decaying organic matter in water and some are plant parasites on land.
  45. hyphae
    thin filaments that water molds produce
  46. zoosporangia
    portions of hyphae develop into theses cases
  47. antheridium
    produces male nuclei
  48. oogonuim
    produces female nuclei

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