Bio ch.14

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Bio ch.14
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2011-03-22 23:40:43
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Bio ch.14
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  1. ampulla
    base of a semicircular canal in the inner ear
  2. aqueous humor
    clear, watery fluid between the cornea and lens of the eye
  3. astigmatism
    blurred vision due to an irregular curvature of the cornea or the lens
  4. auditory canal
    curved tube extending from the pinna to the tmpanic membrane
  5. auditory tube
    extension from the middle ear to the nasopharynx that equalizes air pressure on the eardrum
  6. blind spot
    region of the retina lacking rods or cones where the optic nerve leaves the eye
  7. chemoreceptor
    sensory receptor sensitive to chemical stimuli - for example, receptors for taste and smell
  8. choroid
    vascular, pigmented middle layer of the eyeball
  9. ciliary body
    structure associated with the choroid layer that contains ciliary muscle and controls the shape of the lens of the eye
  10. cochlea
    portion of the inner ear that resembles a snail's shell and contains the spiral organ, the sense organ for hearing
  11. cochlear nerve
    either of two cranial nerves that carry nerve impulses from the spiral organ to the brain; also called the auditory nerve
  12. color vision
    ability to detect the color of an object; dependent on three types of cone cells
  13. cone cell
    photoreceptor in retina of eye that responds to bright light; detects color and provides visual acuity
  14. cornea
    transparent, anterior portion of the outer layer of the eyeball
  15. cutaneous receptor
    sensory receptors for pressure and touch found in the dermis of the skin
  16. exteroceptor
    sensory receptor that detects stimuli from outside the body (e.g., taste, smell, vision, hearing, and equilibrium)
  17. farsighted
    vision abnormality due to a shortened eyeball from front to back; light rays focus in back of retina when viewing close objects
  18. focus
    bending of light rays by the cornea, lens, and humors so that they converge and create an image on the retina
  19. fovea centralis
    region of the retina consisting of densely packed cones; responsible for the greatest visual acuity
  20. glaucoma
    increasing loss of field of vision; caused by blockage of the ducts that drain the aqueous humor, creating pressure buildup and nerve damage
  21. gravitational equilibrium
    maintenance of balance when the head and body are motionless
  22. hair cell
    cell with stereocilia (long microvilli) that is sensitive to mechanical stimulation; mechanoreceptor for hearing and equilibrium in the inner ear
  23. incus
    the middle of three ossicles of the ear that serve to conduct vibrations from the tympanic membrane to the oval window of the inner ear
  24. inner ear
    portion of the ear consisting of a vestibule, semicircular canals, and the cochlea, where equilibrium is maintained and sound is transmitted
  25. integration
    summing up of excitatory and inhibitory signals by the a neuron or by some part of the brain
  26. interoceptor
    sensroy receptor that detects stimuli from inside the body (e.g pressoreceptors, ormoreceptors, and chemoreceptors)
  27. iris
    muscular ring that surrounds the pupil and regulates the passage of light through this opening
  28. kinocilium
    the largest stereocilium
  29. lens
    clear, membranelike structure found in the eye behind the iris; brings objects into focus
  30. malleus
    the first of three ossicles of the ear that serve to conduct vibrations from the tympanic membrane to the oval window of the inner ear
  31. mechanoreceptor
    sensory receptor that responds to mechanical stimuli, such as that from pressure, sound waves, and gravity
  32. middle ear
    portion of the ear consisting of the tympanic membrane, the oval and round windows, and the ossicles; where sound is amplified
  33. nearsighted
    vision abnomality due to an elongated eyeball from front to back; light rays focus in front of retina when viewing distant objects
  34. olfactory cell
    modified neuron that is a sensory receptor for the sense of smell
  35. optic chiasma
    x-shaped structure on the underside of the brain formed by a partial crossing-over of optic nerve fibers
  36. optic nerve
    either of two cranial nerves that carry nerve impulses from the retina of the eye to the brain, thereby contributing to the sense of sight
  37. optic tracts
    groups of neurons from the optic nerve that sweep around the hypothalamus. most fibers synapse with neurons in nuclei within the thalamus
  38. ossicle
    one of the small bones of the middle ear - malleus, incus, and stapes
  39. otolith
    calcium carboneate granule associated with ciliated cells in the utricle and the saccule
  40. outer ear
    portion of ear consisting of the pinna and auditory canal
  41. oval window
    membrane-covered opening between the stapes and the inner ear
  42. pain receptor
    sensroy receptor that is sensitive to chemicals released by damaged tissues or cevess stimuli of heat or pressure
  43. photoreceptor
    sensory receptor in retina that responds to light stimuli
  44. pinna
    part of the ear that projects on the outside of the head
  45. proprioreceptor
    sensory receptor in skeletal muscles and joints that assists the brain in knowing the position of the limbs
  46. pupil
    opening in the center of the iris of the eye
  47. referred pain
    pain perceived as having come from a site other than that of its actual origin
  48. retina
    innermost layer of the eyeball that contains the rod cells and the cone cells
  49. retinal
    light-absorbing molecule that is a derivative of vitamin A and a component of rhodopsin
  50. rhodopsin
    light-absorbing molecule in rod cells and cone cells that contains a pigment and the protein opsin
  51. rod cell
    photoreceptor in retina of eyes that responds to dim light
  52. rotational equilibrium
    maintanence of balance when the head and body are suddenly moved or rotated
  53. round window
    membrane-covered opening between the inner ear and the middle ear
  54. saccule
    saclike cavity in the vestibule of the inner ear; contains sensory receptors for gravitational equilibrium
  55. sclera
    white, fibrous, outer layer of the eyeball
  56. semicircular canal
    one of three tubular structures within the inner ear that contain sensory receptors responsible for the sense of rotational equilibrium
  57. sensation
    conscious awareness of a stimulus due to nerve impulses sent to the brain from a sensory receptor by way of sensory neurons
  58. sensory adaptation
    phenomenon of a sensation becoming less noticeable once it has been recognized by constant repeated stiumlation
  59. sensory receptor
    structure that receives either external or internal environmental stimuli and is a part of a sensory neuron or transmits signals to a sensory neuron
  60. spiral organ
    organ in the cochlear duct of the inner ear responsible for hearing; also called the organ of Corti
  61. stapes
    the last of three ossicles of the ear that serve to conduct vibrations from the tympanic membrane to the oval window of the inner ear
  62. stereocilia
    long, flexibl microvilli that superficially resemble cilia. Within the inner ear, these signel changes in body position and help to maintain balance and equilibrium
  63. stimulus
    change in the internal or external environment that a sensory receptor can detect, leading to nerve impulses in sensory neurons
  64. taste bud
    sense organ containing the receptors associated with the sense of taste
  65. tectorial membrane
    membanr that lies above and makes contact with the hair cells in the spiral organ
  66. thermoreceptor
    sensory receptor that is sensitive to changes in temperature
  67. tympanic membrane
    located between the outer and middle ear where it receives sound waves; also called the eardrum
  68. utricle
    saclike cavity in the vestibule of the inner ear that contains sensory receptors for gravitational equilibrium
  69. vestibule
    space or cavity at the entrance of a canal, such as the cavity that lies between the semicircular canals and the cochlea
  70. visual accommodation
    ability of the eye to focus at different distances by changing the curvature of the lens
  71. vitreous humor
    clear, gelatinous material between the lens of the eye and the retina

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