Metabolism

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Author:
alowrie
ID:
74691
Filename:
Metabolism
Updated:
2011-04-12 17:05:52
Tags:
Pyruvate
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Description:
Nutrition 203 Test 3
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  1. energy metabolism is?
    includes all the reactions by which the body obtains and spends the energy from food.
  2. What is Metabolism?
    - Sum of all chemical reactions that take place in living cells.

    • -Energy you get from eating plants/animals.
    • -Dont get all the energy.
  3. Carbohydrates go to what in absorption?
    Glucose

    -Main use
  4. Lipids go to what in absorption?
    Glycerol + Fatty Acids

    -Main use
  5. Proteins go to what in absorption?
    Amino Acids

    • -primarily for building protein
    • - 10-15% comes from protien
  6. Anabolism is?
    Smaller molecules are put together to build larger molecules.

    -Have to put energy in to occur
  7. Both types of reactions are common because? (anabolism and catabolism)
    in metabolic pathways dependent on the metabolic state of the person.

    fed vs. fasted
  8. Catabolism is?
    Large molecules are broken down to small molecules

    -energy is released
  9. In general we store energy as either what? (2 ways)
    • glycogen
    • fat (main way)
  10. The energy released from the breakdown of these 4 basic building blocks is often captured in what bonds?
    ATP
  11. ATP is?
    Common high energy storage compound.

    -As we start to release energy it is temporarly stored in ATP.

    - During chemical reactions
  12. What makes up a couple reaction?
    ATP and parent compound
  13. What is ATP used for?
    Used to transfer energy released during catabolic rxn's to power its anabolic reactions.

    • -Heat is released when happening about 60% is heat.
    • -some energy is lost as heat
  14. Pyruvate has how many carbon compounds?
    3
  15. Acetyle CoaA has how many carbon compounds?
    2
  16. NADH and FADH2 are what?
    complex organic molecules that work with enzymes to affilate activity.
  17. Pyruvate can be used to make what and acetyle CoA can not?
    Glucose
  18. Number of Carbons are key to what?
    Were they enter metabolisum.
  19. 3 carbon structures are used to make what?
    Glucose
  20. 2 carbon structures can not make what?
    Glucose
  21. fatty acids enter at?
    ACetyl CoA which is why they can not form glucose
  22. Some Amino Acids can make what?
    Glucose
  23. NADH and FADH2 go to what?
    the electron transport chain and are used to make ATP
  24. glucose ----> pyravate=
    glycolysis
  25. NADH and FADH2 don't produce what in the same amounts?
    energy
  26. Aerobic is?
    Oxygen has to be present, if not goes towards lactate
  27. Anaerobic is?
    Does not have oxygen?
  28. Pyruvate can enter 1 or 2 ways dependent on what?
    oxygen availability
  29. pyruvate ---->
    lactic acid
  30. Because fatty acids come in as acetyl CoA they can not be used to make?
    glucose
  31. Fatty Acids enter as?
    2 carbon compounds combined with COA to form Acetyl COA

    called fatty acid oxidation
  32. Glycerol is?
    3 carbon compound

    used to go towards glucose
  33. There are 3 ways TG provide compounds to make ATP what are they?
    • 1. glycerol (3 carbon comp.) enters as pyrubate
    • 2. The assetal CoA fatty acid entering the TCA cycle
    • 3. NADH and FADH2 from fatty acid that enters the electron train.
  34. Ketogenic?
    can enter as intermediates of the TCA cycle
  35. many Amin acids can be used to make?
    glucose

    this will be important when we consider a long term fast.
  36. 3 major keytone bodies?
    • 1. betahydrocsbutarate
    • 2. Acetoacitate
    • 3. Acetone

    Produces small amounts

    always have some in system
  37. Ketoses is?
    Reduces loss of appitite

    your brain gives up telling you that you are hungry.

    low carb diets can force you into this
  38. Nutrigenetics refers to what?
    The specific gene sequence differences between humans and how these affect the differences in repsonses to diet and particular needs for nutrients.
  39. Nutrigenomics is?
    The study of the effects of diet on the expression of all genes and their functions

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