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What is IT?
IT enables organizations to survive and thrive in the face of relentless business pressures.
Management Information Systems
Porter's Model 5 steps
- 1. The threat of new entrants
- 2. Supplier power
- 3. Buyer Power
- 4. Threat of substitute products of services
- 5. Rivalry between competitors
An elementry description of things, events, activities, and transactions that are recorded, classified, and stored but are not organized to convey any specific meaning
Data that has been organized so that it has meaning and value to the recipient
Data and/or information that have been organized and processed to convey understanding, expierence, accumulated learning, and expertise as they apply to a current business problem.
Information Technology Architecture
A high level map or plan of the information assets in an organization.
Information Technology Infrastructure
The physical facilties, IT components, IT services, and IT personnel that support the entire organization.
The integration and interdependence of economic, social, cultural, and ecological facets of life, enabled by rapid advances in information technology.
3 stages of Globalization
- 1. focused on countries
- 2. focused on companies
- 3. focused on groups and individuals
Friedman's 10 Flatteners
- 1. The collapse of the Berlin Wall
- 2. Netscape
- 3. Workflow Software
- 4. Uploading
- 5. Outsourcing
- 6. Offshoring
- 7. Supply Chaining
- 8. Insourcing
- 9. Informing
- 10. The Steroids
Friedman's First Force
Enabled Eastern Europeon countries to move toward free market economies and away from totalitarian, centrally planned economies.
Friedman's Second Force
Netscape popularized the Internet and the Web by making them easy to navigate.
Friedman's Third Force
Workflow Software enables computer applications to work with one another without human intervention.
Friedman's Fourth Force
Uploading means that anyone can create and upload content to the Web.
Friedman's Fifth Force
Outsourcing is having another company perform a specific function that your company was doing itself.
Friedman's Sixth Force
Offshoring occurs when a company moves an entire operation, or certain tasks to another country.
Friedman's Seventh Force
Supply chaining occurs when companies, their suppliers,and their customers collaborate and share information.
Friedman's Eighth Force
Insourcing delegates operations or jobs within a business to another company, which specilizes in those operations.
Friedman's Ninth Force
Informing is your ability to search for information, best illustrated by search engines.
Friedman's Tenth Force
The steroids enable all forms of computing and collaboration to be digital, mobile, and personal.
Is the combination of social, legal, economic, physical, and political factors that affect business activities.
3 types of business pressures that organizations face, market, technology and societal pressures.
North American Free Trade Agreement which includes the US, Canada, and Mexico.
- 1. Global Economy and Strong Competition
- 2. The Changing Nature of the Workforce
- 3. Powerful Customers
Customer Relationship Management
- 1. Technological Innovation and Obsolesecence
- 2. Information Overload
- 1. Social responsibility
- 2. Government Regulation/Deregulation
- 3. Spending for Social Programs
- 4. Spending to Protect against Terrorism
- 5. Ethics
Organizational Social Responsibility
Efforts by organizations to solve various social problems
The gap between those who have access to info and communications, and those who don't
Public places in which Internet terminals are available
Compliance with Government Regulations and Deregulation
regads health, safety, environmental control, and equal opportunity
- 1. Strategic Systems
- 2. Customer Focus
- 3. Make to Order and Mass customiztion
- 4. E-Business and E-Commerce
Make to Order
a strategy of producing cutomized products and services
Produces a large quantity of items, but it customizes them to fit the desires of each customer
Integral to every functional area of an organization
Computer Assisted Design
Computer Assisted Manufacturing
What is IT
- Information Technology
- Technology that relates to any computer based tool that people use to work with information and support the information and information processing needs of an organization
Management Information Systems
Systems that deal with the planning for, development, management, and use of information technology tools to help people perform all tasks related to information processing and management
The hardware, software, and communications components that organizations use to process and manage information
- Computer Based Information System
- CBIS uses computer technology to perform some or all of its intended tasks.
- Information System
- It collects, processes, stores analyzes and disseminates information for a specific purpose
What is BI
- Business Inteligence Systems
- Provides computer based support for complex, non routine decisions
A device such as a processor, monitor, keyboard, and printer
A program or collection of programs that enables the hardware to process data
A collection of related files or tables containing data
A connecting system that permits different computers to share resources
7 Major Capabilities of IS
- 1. Perform high speed, high volume, numerical computations
- 2. Provide fast accurate communication and collaboration
- 3. Store huge amounts of info in an easy to access yet small space
- 4. Allow quick and inexpensive access to vast amounts of info
- 5. Interpret vast amounts of data quickly and efficiently
- 6. Increase the effectiveness and efficiency of people working in groups in one place or in several places
- 7. Automate both business processes and manual tasks
A set of instructions that tell how to process info and generate the desired output
A computer program designed to support a specific task or process
Knowledge workers are professional emplyees who are experts in a particular subject area
What is ERP
- Enterprise Resoruce Planning
- ERP corrects a lack of communcation among IS, it fixes the problem by integrating the functional area IS via a common database.
What is IOS
- Interorganizational Information System
- A system that connects two or more organizations
What is TPS
- Transaction Processing System
- TPS is critical because it supports core operations.
- Office Automation Systems
- Supports clerical staff, lower and middle managers, and knowledge workers
What is FAIS
- Functional Area Information Systems
- Used to summarize dataand prepare reports
What is ES
- Expert Systems
- ES attemps to duplicate the work of human experts by applying reasoning capabilities, knowledge and expertise within a specific domain
What are Dashboards
Also called Digital Dashboards support all managers of the organization
What is SIS
- Stragegic Information Systems
- Supports a business units competitive strategy
Porter's Competitive Forces Model
Porter's model demonstrates how IT can make a company more competitive
Porter's Value Chain Model
Identifies specific activities where they can use competitive strategies for greatest impact
Porter's Primary Activities
Those business activities that relate to the production and distribution of the firm's product and services
Porter's 5 Primary Activities
- 1. Inbound logistics - inputs
- 2. Operations - manufacture and test
- 3. Otubound logistics - storage and distribution
- 4. Marketing and sales
- 5. Services
Porter's 4 Support Activities
- 1. The firms infrasturcture - accounting, finance management
- 2. Human Resources Management
- 3. R & D
- 4. Procurement
Porter's Support Activities
Contribute to the firms competivie advantage by support inte primary activities
5 Strategies for Comptetitive Advantage
- 1. Cost Leadership Strategy
- 2. Differentiation Strategy
- 3. Innovation Strategy
- 4. Operational Effectiveness Strategy
- 5. Customer Orientation Strategy
Cost Leadership Strategy
Produce products and/or services at the lowest cost in the industry
Offer different products, services, or product features
Introduce new products and services, add new features to existing products and services or develop new ways to produce them
Operational Effectiveness Strategy
Improve the manner in which internal business processes are executed so that a firm performs similar activities better than its rivals
Customer Orientation Strategy
Concentrate on making the customer happy
Why is IS important
- They will reduce the number of middle managers, and change the managers job.
- IT allows managers to spend more time planning, and less time putting out fires
All hardware, sofware, data, and network in an organization
What is ISD
- Information Systems Department
- ISD is a consultant to End Users, who are regarded as customers. ISD is responsible for setting standards for hardware and sofware purchases as well as information security.
What are End Users
All employees that use a compute in their work
How do ISD and End Users interact
ISD and the End Users must be close partners. ISD is responsible for corporate level and shared resources. End Users are responsible for departmental resources.
What is CIO
- Chief Information Officer
- In charge of the IS department in an organization