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- -differential survival and reproduction (fitness) of individuals based on genetic differences in some trait (adaptation)
- -affects fitness of a single individual in a population depending on traits
- -causes frequencies of genes in populations to change
for adaptations to evolve
- -differences in the trait must cause differences in fitness
- -differences in the trait must be heritable
-fitness depends on local environment
- -some individuals have more offspring than others
- -causes change in allele frequency
testing for adaptation
- -reciprocal transplant experiment
- -colored guppies w/ no predators moved to area where drap guppies with predators environment. colored get eaten.
- -characteristic that enhances likelihood of reporduction and survival
- -individuals becoming better suited to their environment
-differential repoduction as a result of variation in the ability to obtain mates
- -people with good blood are good hosts
- -causes death
- -homozygous recessive
-therefore Ss is best genotype because not good hosts and not infected.
natural selection does NOT:
- -perfection: a genotype needs to be a bit better than another in order to survive
- -lack of genetic variation: selection cannot act on mutations that have not happened yet
- -developmental constraint: no way to get from here to there
- -trade off (ex big heads to be smarter, or birth conditions)
- -a genotype producing multiple phenotypes depending on the environment
- -ex. worm that has bristles, is smooth, and fuzzy
- -ex. barnacle and penis size (reaching mates and controling penises)
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