Poli chapter 6-10 quiz

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Poli chapter 6-10 quiz
2011-03-23 22:03:10
Poli chapter quiz

Poli chapter 6-10 quiz
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  1. core beliefs
    individuals' views about the fundamental nature of human beings, society , and economy
  2. political attitudes
    Individuals' views and preferences about public polices, political parties, candidates, government institutions, and public officials.
  3. public opinion
    political attitudes expressed by ordinary citizens as revealed by surveys.
  4. sample survey
    An interview study asking questions of a set of people who are chosen at random to represent the wholee population
  5. random sampling
    the selection of survey respondents by chance, with equal probability
  6. political socialization
    the process by which individuals acquire political beliefs, attitudes, and opinions
  7. agents of socialization
    those institutions and individuals that shape the core beliefs and attitudes of people
  8. party identification
    the sense of belonging to one or another political party
  9. political ideology
    a system of interralated and coherently patterned attitudes and beliefs
  10. collective public opinion
    the political attitudes of the public as a whole, expressed as averages or percentages
  11. rational public
    the notion that collective public opinion is rational in the sense that it is generally stable and consistent and that when it changes it does so as an understable responce to events
  12. presidential approval rating
    A president's standing with the public, indicated by the percentage of Americans who tell survey interviewers that they approve a president's handling of his job
  13. economic conservatives
    people who favor private enterprise and oppose government regulations on spending
  14. economic liberals
    people who favro government regulation of business and government spending for social program
  15. social (lifestyle) liberals
    peopel who favor civil liberties, abortions rights, and alternatives lifestyles
  16. social (lifestyle) conservatives
    people who favor traditional social values; they tend to support strong law-and-order measures and to oppose abortion and gay rights
  17. policy preferences
    citizens' preferences concerning what polices they want government to pursue
  18. isolationism
    the policy of avoiding involvement in foregn affairs
  19. unilateralist
    the stance toward foreign policy that suggests that the United States should "go it alone," pursuing its national interests without seeking the cooperation of other nations or multilateral institutions
  20. multilateralist
    the stance toward foreign policy that sugests that the United States should seek the cooperation of other nations and multilateral institutions in pursuing its goals
  21. watchdog
    the role of the media in scrutinizing the actions of government officals
  22. blog
    the common term for a weblog, a website on which an individual or group posts text etc. on a regualr basis for others to vieew and respond
  23. podcast
    digital audio and video files made readily available to interrested people via computer and portable devices
  24. wire service
    organizations such as the Associated Press and Reuters that gather and disseminate news to other news orgainzations
  25. media monopoly
    term used to suggest that media corporations are so large, powerful, and interconnected that alternative voices to the economically and politically powerful cannot have their views aired
  26. infotainment
    the merging of hard news and entertainment in news presentations
  27. beat
    the assigned location where a reporter regularly gather news stories
  28. (news) leaks
    inside or secret information given to a journalist or media outlet by a government official
  29. spin
    the attempt by public officials to have a story reported in terms that favor them
  30. newsworthy
    worthy of printing or broadcasting as news, according to editors' judgments
  31. objective journalism
    news reported with no evaluative language and with any opinions quoted or attibuted to a specific source.
  32. pundits
    somewhat derisive term for print, broadcast, and radio commentators on the political news
  33. bias
    deviation from some ideal standard, such as representativeness or objectivity
  34. agenda settings
    influencing what people consider important
  35. framing
    providing a context for interpretation
  36. prior restraint
    the government's power to prevent publication, as opposed to punishment afterwards
  37. fairness doctrine
    the former requiredment that television stations present contrasting points of view
  38. equal time provision
    the former requirement taht television stations give or sell the same amount of time to all competing canidates
  39. interest group
    private organization or voluntary assocation that seeks to influence public policy as a way to protect or advance some interest
  40. faction
    James Madison's termfor groups or parties that try to advance thier own interests at the expense of the public good
  41. pluralist
    A political scientist who views American politics as best understood in terms of the interaction, conflict, and bargaining of groups.
  42. private interest
    An interest group that seeks to protect or advance the material interests of its members.
  43. public interest
    an interest group that advocates for a cause or an ideology
  44. lobbying
    the art of trying to influence the decisions of public officials on behalf of as organization or advocacy
  45. advocacy group
    an interest group orgainized to support a cause or ideology
  46. lobbyist
    a person who lobbies
  47. disturbance theory
    a theory that locates the orgins of interest groups in changes in the economic, social, or political environment that threaten the well being of some segment of the population
  48. ear-marking
    the practice of appropiating money for specific pet projects of members of congress, usually done at the behest of lobbuists, and added to bills at the last minute with little opportunity for deliberation
  49. amicus curiae
    Latin for "a freind of the court"; describes a brief in which individuals not party to a suit may have their views heard
  50. grassroots lobbying
    the effort by intrest groups to moblize local constituencies and shape public opinion to support the group's goals and to bring that pressure to bear on elected officials.
  51. political action committee (PAC)
    • an entity created by an interest group whose purpose is to collect money
    • and make contributions to canidates in federal elections
  52. iron triangle
    an enduring alliance of common interest among an interest group, a congressional committee, and a bureaucratic agency, also called a subgovernment.
  53. sub-government
    alliances among interest groups, institutions within each house of congress, and an executive branch agency that work to advance a particular agenda; can take various forms , another name for iron triangle
  54. issue network
    broad coalitions of public and private interest groups, policy experts, and public officials that form around particular policy issues; said to be more visible to the public and more inclusive; opposite of iron triangles
  55. revolving door
    phrase to describe the common practice in which former government officials become lobbyist for interests with whom they formerly dealt in their official capacity
  56. partisan
    a committed member of a party
  57. political party
    an orgainization that tries to win control of government by electing people to office who carry teh party labels
  58. party platform
    a party's statement of its positions on the issues of the day
  59. two-party system
    a political system in which two parties vie on relatively equal terms to win national elections and in which each party governs at one time or another
  60. multiparty system
    A political system in which three or more viable parties compete to lead the government; often most form coalitions
  61. proportional representation
    the awarding of legislative seats to political parties to reflect the proportion of the popular vote each party recieves
  62. realignment
    the process by which one party supplants another as the dominant party in a political system
  63. NewDeal
    the program of the administration of President Franklin D. Roosevelt
  64. New Deal coalition
    the informal electoral alliance of working-class ethic groups, Catholics, Jews, urban dwellers, racial minorities, and the South that was the basis of the Democratic party dominance of American politics from the New Deal to early 1970s
  65. divided government
    Control of the executive and the legislative branches by different political parties
  66. dealignment
    a gradual reduction in the dominance of one political party without another party supplanting it
  67. party identification
    the sense of belonging to one or another political party
  68. liberal
    the political position that holds that the federal government has a substanial role to play in economic regulation, social welfare, and overcoming racial inequality
  69. conservative
    the political position which holds that the federal government ought to play a very small role in economic regulation, social welfare, and overcoming racial inequality
  70. unified government
    Control of the exective and legislative branches by the same political party
  71. gridlock
    a situation in which government is unabled to make policy decisions, usually because of didived government
  72. active partisan
    people who identify with a party , vote in electins, and participate in additional party and party -cadidate activities
  73. leaner
    peopel who claim to be independents but say they consistently favor one party over another
  74. responsible party
    A political party that takes clear, distinct stands on the issues and enacts them as policy when in office
  75. prospective voting model
    a theory of democratic elections in which voters decide what government will do in the near future by choosing one or another responisble party
  76. electoral competition model
    a form of election in which parties seeking votes move toward the median voter or the center of the political spectrum
  77. median voter model
    a term that refers to the voter at the exact middle of the political spectrum
  78. electoral reward and punishment
    the tendency to vote for the incumbents when times are good and against them when times are bad
  79. retrospective voting
    a form of election in which voters look back at the performance of a party in power and cast ballots on the basis of how well it did in office
  80. franchise
    the right to vote
  81. suffrage
    the right to vote
  82. Electoral College
    Elected representatives of the states whose votes formally elect teh President of the United States;
  83. (party) convention
    a gathering of delegates who nominate a party's presidentaial candidate
  84. primary election
    statewide elections in which voters choose delegates to the national party conventions
  85. caucus nominating system
    a system for selecting delegates to the national party conventions characterized by neighbood and areawide meetings of party supporters and activists
  86. turnout
    the proportion of eligible voters who actually vote in a given election
  87. referenda
    procedures avaible in some states by which proposed state laws or constitutional amendments are submitter to the voters for approval or rejection
  88. initiative
    procedures available in some states for citizens to put proposed laws and constitutional amendments on the ballot for voter approval
  89. superdelegate
    elected officials from all levels of government who are appointed by party committees to be delegates to the national convention of the Democratic Party; not selected in primary elections or caucuses
  90. elector
    representatives who are elected in the states to formally choose the U.S. president
  91. plurality
    more votes than any other candidate bu t less than a majority of all votes cast
  92. Political loyality among social groups : sex, race, religion and ideology
    • total- most IND
    • Men-most IND
    • women -most DEM
    • white-most IND
    • black- most DEM
    • hispanic- most DEM
    • catholic-most IND
    • Evan Protestant- REP
    • mainline Protestant- DEM
    • jewish- DEM
    • no religion-IND
  93. Political loyality among social groups :by age, education level and income
    • 18-29 -IND
    • 30-49-IND
    • 50-64-DEM
    • 65+-DEM
    • <$20,000 -IND
    • $20,000-$30,000 -IND
    • $30,000-$50,000 -IND
    • $50,000-$75,000 -IND
    • $75,000- REP
  94. Where do people get their news?
    • 2006
    • TV-54%
    • Newspaper-40%
    • Online for News- 31%
    • 2008
    • TV-70%
    • Newspaper-35%
    • Online for news-40%

    • TV- up
    • Newspaper- down
    • Online for news-up
  95. Is the media basis?
    There is no evidence that it is.
  96. Interest groups
    • *representational Inequalities-not all segments of society are equally represnted in interest groups
    • * creats iron traingles... others don't get heard/helped
  97. Who votes?
    • those with higher than average incomes and more formal education
    • blacks almost equal white in 2008 but usually lower
  98. Presidential Primaries and Caucuses
    how each party picks their canadidate (differnet for each state)
  99. Why low turnout?
    • barriers to vote
    • too much complexity
    • weak voter mobilization by parties
    • a decline in competitive elections