ch 8

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Author:
jmacedo
ID:
74738
Filename:
ch 8
Updated:
2011-03-23 12:25:03
Tags:
articulations
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Description:
articulations
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  1. articulation
    joint, point of contact between bones or between cartilage and bone
  2. synarthroses
    no movement
  3. amphiarthroses
    slight movement
  4. diarthroses
    freely moveable
  5. functional classification of joint
    by the amount of movement possible
  6. structural
    by the presence or absence of a joint cavity and the type of connective tissue holding it together
  7. fibrous
    no joint cavity; helt together by fibrous connective tissue
  8. cartileginous
    no joint cavity; held together by cartilage
  9. synovial
    has a joint cavity, helt together by an articual capsule that secretes synovial fluid that lubricates joint
  10. suture
    • synarthrotic
    • between skull bones
    • irregular structure
    • connected by dense fibrous tissue
  11. syndesmosis
    • synarthrotic/amphiarthrotic
    • more fibrous ct than sutures
    • less tight fit
    • distal articulation between tibia & fibula
  12. gomphosis
    • synarthrotic
    • cone shaped gep fits into a socket
    • teeth
    • ct= periodontal ligament
  13. synchondrosis
    • synarthrotic
    • joining material is hyaline cart
    • epiphyseal plate
    • 1st rib
    • manubrium
  14. symphysis
    • amphiarthrotic
    • pad or disc
    • intervertebral discs
    • pubic symphysis
  15. synovial
    • all are diarthrotic
    • more or less freely moveable
    • all have joint cavity
  16. articular capsule
    sleevelike extension of the periosteum around the joint
  17. fibrous capsule
    outer layer of articular capsule
  18. synovial membrane
    secretes synovial fluid into joint cavity
  19. synovial fluid functions
    • nourishes joint
    • lubricates joint
    • phagocytic cells
  20. weeping lubrication theory
    hyaline cart has tiny openings, synovial fluid enters cartilage, fluid is squeezed out as bones move past each other, then fluid seeps back in
  21. bursae
    • additional fluid filled sacks around synovial joints
    • knee has 13
    • cushion movement between skin and bone
    • inflammation of bursae- bursitis
  22. accesory ligaments
    • inside or outside capsule
    • bind bones together
    • resist dislocation
    • limiting ROM
  23. 3 factors affect joint stability
    • nature of articular surfaces
    • number and positioning of ligaments
    • muscle tone
  24. types of synovial joints
    • plane
    • hinge
    • pivot joint
    • condyloid
    • saddle
    • ball & socket
  25. plane joint
    flat articular surfaces between carpals, tarsals, translational joint
  26. hinge joint
    • uniaxial movement
    • elbow- humerus & ulna
  27. pivot joint
    • uniaxial movement
    • fits into a tendon
    • radius & ulna
    • atlas & axis
  28. condyloid joint
    • biaxial
    • between metacarpals & phylanges
  29. saddle joint
    thumb
  30. ball & socket
    hip
  31. arthritis
    various types of diseases that produce stiff painful joints
  32. rheumatoid
    • autoimmune
    • hereditary
    • females
    • younger women (30-40)
  33. arthritis symptoms
    • swelling pain due to buildup of synovial fluid
    • abnormal tissue = pannus
    • ankylosis (joint fusion)
  34. osteoarthritis
    • affects male and femal equally
    • most common
    • wear & tear
    • degenerative
    • cartilages wear out/replaced with bone
    • bone spur formation
  35. gouty arthritis
    • men
    • metabolic problem
    • uric acid buildup
    • highly treatable, change diet, drugs can help body excrete uric acid
  36. dislocation
    • luxation
    • displacement of a bone from its joint attachments; tearing of ligaments, tendons, rupture of articular capsule.
    • common sites- finger, shoulder, thumb
    • not common- mandible, knee, hip, elbow
  37. sprain
    • wrenching of or twisting of a joint, short of luxation
    • most common- ankle
    • less common-lower back

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