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What A supplies the LGN?
Thalamogeniculate (off of posterior cerebral)
What A supplies the medial optic radiations and the visual cortex?
Calcarine A (off of posterior cerebral)
What A supplies the lateral optic radiations and Meyer's loops?
What A provides the Optic tract?
Anterior Choroidal (off of IC)
What A provides the optic chiasm?
Branches off of anterior communicating branch of ACA
What A provides CNII?
Ophthalmic branches (IC)
What A supples the retina and and distal CN II?
Central A of the retina (Opthalmic, IC)
What A supply photoreceptors?
Choroid (off of ophthalmic, IC)
What is Anopia?
Visual field defect
What is Hemianopia?
loss of one half of visual field
What is Quadrantanopia?
loss of a quadrant of visual field
What is Homonymous deficit?
Deficit in visual field in same part of eye for both eyes
What is Heteronymous?
Deficit in visual field in different part of eye for both eyes
What fibers are ispilateral or contralateral? Temporal (Lateral) or Medial (Nasal)
- Ipsilateral: Temporal (Lateral)
- Contralateral: Nasal (Medial)
Of the LGN layers, which are ipsilateral or contralateral?
- Ipsilateral: 2, 3, 5
- Contralateral:1, 4, 6
Which cells can react in more than one location? Granule, simple, or complex
Which cells are center-surround cells? Granule, Simple, or Complex
What type of potentials fire in bipolar and ganglion cells?
- Bipolar: graded potentials
- Ganglion: APs
What are the four types of center-surround cells?
- 1) Bipolar
- 2) Ganglion
- 3) LGN
- 4) Granular
Which cells make up CNII?
Ganglion cells (axons)
What is the Stria of Gennari?
Extra band of perpendicular cells in layer 4 of visual cortex. Only found here!!
What gyrus does the Macula Densa synapse?
Posterior portion of Cuneus gyrus
What opens and closes Na gated channels in photoreceptors?
- Open = cGMP
- Close = 5' cGMP
What type of nerve fibers are housed in the Edinger-Westphal nucleus?
Where do the Pregang. Parasym. of EW synapse to become Postgang. Parasym?
What are the three steps in the accomodation reflex for an object moving closer?
- 1) Medial rectus muscle pulls eyes together
- 2) Pupillary sphinctor muscle conistricts pupil
- 3) Ciliary body contracts = relaxed suspensory ligaments = round lens
What is Amblyopia?
abnormal visual stimulation during childhood
What is strabismus?
Straying of one or both eyes off of focus
What are congenital cataracts?
What is visual agnosia? Where located?
- inability to recognize a viewed object
- Brodmann areas18-19 (dorsal group)
What is Prosopagnosia? Where?
- Inability to distinguish one face from another face
- temporal lobe