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Radio Corporation of America
Columbia Broadcasting System
National Broadcasting Company
American Broadcasting Company
Federal Radio Commission
Federal Communications Commission
Corporation for Public Broadcasting
National Public Radio
Public Broadcasting Service
Digital Audio Broadcasting
Local Marketing Agreement
Hybrid Digital or High-definition
HD (Hybrid Digital)
is the trademark for iBiquity's in-band on-channel (IBOC) digital radio technology used by AM and FM radio stations to transmit audio and data via a digital signal in conjunction with their analog signals. It was selected by the United States Federal Communications Commission (FCC) in 2002 as a digital audio broadcasting method for the United States, and is the only digital system approved by the FCC for digital AM/FM broadcasts in the United States.
National Association of Broadcasters (radio and tv)
Low-Power FM radio broadcasting
What are the terminal antithetical goals in radio management (2)?
Protect License ("public interest, neccessity, convenience")
Generate Revenue (commerical radio profit margin -- 10-50%)
Define: Cluster Operations
Combining the operation of mulitple stations in the same facility
- ex: Clear Channel - Little Rock = 100.3, 106.7, 96, 94.9, 105.1
- Crain Media - Searcy = 99.9, 100.7, 99
Advantages of Cluster Operation (4)
- Reduced Cost (facilities, personnel)
- Cross-Promotion (events, program specials, news, formats)
- Cross-Utilize Personnel
- Advertising Packages
Disadvantages of Cluster Operation (3)
- Profit and Ratings Driven
- Reduced Local and Live Programming
- Homogeonous Programming
Categories of radion station employees/organization -- with characteristics of position (4)
- Administrative -- resident; low turnover
- On-Air Talent -- non-resident; transient; high turnover; creative
- Sales -- resident; moderate turnover; people-oriented
- Technical -- resident; low turnover
list the Radio Markets (3)
- Small -- >100,000 ppl; local orientation; limited local competition; small staff (4-6) *more than half of all radio stations*
- Medium -- 100,000-500,000 ppl; high competition (15+ stations); ratings driven; moderate staff size (10-20)
- Large -- <500,000; intense competition (60+ stations); large staff (20-60)
Top 3 Radio Markets
- #1 New York
- #2 Los Angeles
- #3 Chicago
(same for radio and tv)
(Radio Station Organization) Administration positions (7)
- General Manager
- Station/Operations/Business Manager
(Radio Station Organization) Administration: Owner discription
Individual or group to which station is licensed
(Radio Station Organization) Administration: General Manager discription
- Responsible for the overall operation of the station.
- Help develop and implement station policies.
- Serve as liaison between station and community.
(Radio Station Organization) Administration: Station/Operations/Business Manager discription
- Supervise administrative staff
- Help develop and implement station policies
- Supervise departmental budgets
- Comply with government rules and regulations
- Serve as liaison between station and community
(Radio Station Organization) Programming positions (6)
- Program Director
- News Director
- Continuity/Copy Writers
- Community/Public Affairs
(Radio Station Organization) Programming: Program Director discription
- Develop and execute program format
- Hire and supervise air and production staff
- Monitoring station and competition
- Maintain the music library and program services
- Comply with FCC rules and regulations
- Coordinate the efforts of news and public affairs
(Radio Station Organization) Sales positions (2)
- Sales Manager
- Sales/Account Executives
(Radio Station Organization) Sales: Sales Manager discription
- Generate station income by directing the sale of commercial time
- Supervise sales staff
- Worth the with station's national rep to attract national and regional advertising
- Assign accounts and sales quotas to account executives
- Coordinate station sales promotions
- Develop sales materials and rate cards
(Radio Station Organization) Engineering positions (2)
- Chief Engineer
(Radio Station Organization) Engineering: Cheif Engineer discription
- Operate the station within licensed parameters
- Purchase, repair and maintian equipment
- Monitor signal quality
What does the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) do/responsible for?
- Regulation Enforcement (with inspections, fines, and license revocation)
- Issues call letters (K: west of Mississippi river, W: east of Mississippi river)
- Controls frequency and power
*FCC has limited control over programming/formats*
What did the 1980's Deregulation affect?
- Ownership Limits
- Fairness Doctrine
- Operator Licensing
Radio station's Public File requirements
- Availablet o general public during business hours
- Located in community of operation
- Retained for 7 years
Radio station's Public File contents
- annual employment reports
- copies of all FCC apllications
- ownership reports
- political file
- letters from public
- quarterly issues
- local public notices
Radio General Manager characteristics/responsible to/expertise
- often promoted from sales
- occasionally promoted from programming
- balance creativity with business
- knowledge of/experience in all radio operations
- involved in local community
responsible to: owners, corporate, listeners, advertisers, employees
expertise in: sales, marketing, finance, legal, technical, regulation, programming, community
Radio Advertising Bureau
Define: National Association of Broadcasters (NAB)
Largest broadcast industry trade and lobbying organization
Define: Radio Advertising Bureau (RAB)
Radio sales and marketing resource
What do Rep Companies do?
sell local station airtime to national/regional advertisers
Are most stations unionized or not unionized?
Most stations are NOT unionized
What qualifications must you have to be a radio licensee? (4)
- U.S. citizen
- No criminal history
- Financial stability
- Good personal and professional reputation
Terminal Goals of NONcommercial broadcasting?
- Protect license
- Generate revenue
Motivation for NONcommercial broadcasting?
public service rather than profit
Programming style of NONcommercial broadcasting?
"alternative"/ "supplemental" entertainment/ information (educational, religious, alternative, cultural, experimental)
Station categories of NONcommercial broadcasting?
Major revenue sources of NONcommercial broadcasting?
government, business, foundations, educational institutions, individuals
Supplemental revenue for NONcommercial broadcasting?
satellite/tower lease, paging/data services, program production/sales, ancillary rights
Issues for NONcommercial broadcasting?
funding of noncommercial broadcasting; need for and value of noncommercial broadcasting
What are the NONcommercial channels for Radio (and TV)?
Radio -- Assigned to first 20 channels of FM band (88.1 - 91.9)
TV -- No assigned channels
NONcommercial audience statistics?
Upscale audience in terms of income and education
4% of adult population listens regularly to public radio
- TV: 55% of households watch public tv each week
- the average household watches 3 hours of public tv a week
- 2% of households watch public tv during primetime
Define Underwriting (incl. length)
- On-air recognition of financial supporters of noncommercial broadcasting
- usually 10-30 seconds in length
Acceptable/allowed elements for donor mentions...(what)?
- logos, slogans, music that identify, but do not promote or compare.
- location and telephone number.
- value-neutral descriptions of product lines, brand names, or services.
Unacceptable/not allowed elements for donor mentions...(what)?
- Information about prices, discounts, bonuses, special offers, coupons
- Calls to action ("act now," "stop by," "try," "call")
- Direct comparisons with competitors
Example of basic underwriting announcement:
"This portion of programming is made possible with a grant from Orr Toyota, now in its new location on highway 67 in Searcy. Orr Toyota has served White County for more than a decade?
Public Broadcasting Act: passed when? did what?
passed by Congress in 1967
establishes federal funding for public broadcasting, establishes Corporation for Public Broadcasting (CPB)
Corporation for Public Broadcasting (CPB): established when? does what?
est. 1967 in the Public Broadcasting Act
- quasi-governmental organization
- provides funding and guidance for public broadcasting
- may not own or operate broadcast facilities
Public Broadcasting Service (PBS): established when? does what?
- schedules, promotes and distributes noncommercial television programming
- does not produce its own programming
- first television network to distribute all programming by satellite (1978)
National Public Radio (NPR): established when? does what?
est. by CPB in 1970
- upgrades the quality of public radio
- produces and distributes noncommercial news and information programming
- satellite distribution began in 1980
- station requirements:
- high-quality production and transmission equipment
- at least 5 full-time employees
- at least 18 hours of programming every day of the year
American Public Radio (APR): established when? does what?
formed by a group of public stations in 1982
- changed it name to Public Radio International (PRI) in 1994
- independent, non-profit, private network based in St. Paul, Minnesota
- acquires and disseminates local programming to network of stations
- supported by member fees (no direct federal funding)
- more cultural and classical programs from various parts of the country (Garrison Keillor's "A Prairie Home Companion")
Todd Storz is the father of what?
"Father of Top-40 Radio"
Todd Storz (facts)
- Storz and his father purchased KOWH-AM in Omaha in 1949.
- Programming consisted of block programming of dramas and variety shows.
- Created Top-40 format based on popularity of songs as determined through record sales and jukebox plays.
- Died of a stroke in 1964 at age 39.
Gordon McLendon (in respect to top-40 radio)
Credited with perfecting the Top-40 format in the 1950's.
What was Top-40's format known for?
Top-40 was known for its limited playlist of Top-40 hits, "personality" disc jockeys, jingles, contests, listener dedications, fast paced news updates, traffic reports, and other features.
What radio station did Gordon McLendon found?
- Founded radio station KLIF
- (The Mighty 1190)
- in Oak Cliff - Dallas, Texas in 1947
Gordon McLendon originated which music format on what station?
originated "Beautiful music" format on KABL in Oakland, California in 1959
Gordon McLendon founded which all-news radio station?
- the FIRST all-news radio station
- WNUS in Chicago in the 1960's
(one of WNUS' reporters was future CNN anchor Bernard Shaw)
Gordon McLendon founded what radio network?
- Founder of the Liberty Radio Network in the 1940's
- noted for its daily national broadcasts of major league baseball
- with 458 radio stations in 1952, LBS was the second largest radio network in the U.S.
What was Gordon McLendon's on-air personality?
- "The Old Scotchman"
- He aired re-creations of baseball games with the help of sounds effects and wire service reports
Gordon McLendon was the first to...what?
- Established the 1st mobile news units in American radio
- 1st traffic reports
- 1st jingles
- Among the 1st broadcasters to editorialize
2 random facts:
The McLendon family built a communications empire that included radio stations across the U.S.
For a time he owned Radio NORD, a converted fishing boat in the North Sea, which beamed into Sweden and other European countries.
Gordon McLendon (in respect to movies)
- McLendon and his family also owned drive-in and conventional movie theatres.
- In 1959 he made 3 "B" movies - The Killer Shrews (described by a New York film critic as one of the worst movies ever made), The Giant Gila Monster, and My Dog Buddy.
Conspiracy theorists say what about Gordon McLendon?
- Theorists allege McLendon played a peripheral role in the J.F.K assassination.
- Jack Ruby was both a listener and admirer of McLendon and known to the staff of the station.
Gordon McLendon (in respect to politics)
- McLendon, a conservative Democrat lost the primary election against incumbent US Senator Ralph Yarborough in 1964.
- He entered the primary for the 1968 Texas gubernatorial election, but withdrew from both the election and the Democratic Party, citing President Lyndon Johnson's Vietnam War policies.
Gordon McLendon (in respect to book writing)
McLendon became an authority on precious metals and wrote a book titled Get Really Rich in the Coming Super Metals Boom (1981)
He also authored a number of other books in broadcasting and government.
Gordon McLendon's worth (selling radio stations)
- sold radio station KLIF, Dallas, in 1971 to Fairchild Industries of Germantown, Maryland, for $10.5 million.
- by 1979 sold all of its broadcasting properties, including 14 radio and 2 television stations, worth approximately $100 million
- by 1985 Forbes magazine estimated McLendon's net worth at $200 million
Gordon McLendon died when and was inducted into the Radio Hall of Fame when?
Died September 14, 1986 (age 65)
Inducted into the Radio Hall of Fame in 1994
Characteristics of Broadcast Radio
- Wireless transmission
- Unrestricted, uncoded public reception
- continuous program schedule
- licensed by government
- public "ownership" of spectrum
- background medium
- personal medium
- passive audience
- targeted audience (age, gender, lifestyle, interests, music)
Pre-Broadcast social factors: Industrial Revolution
- concentrated people in cities
- improved literacy and education
- increased leisure time
- increased the acceptance of technoogy in daily lives
(Pre-Broadcast) Penny Press
- by: Benjamin Day
- "New York Sun" (1830's)
- first mass-oriented, mass-produced medium
- created the habit of mass media consumption
- provided the model for broadcasting entertainment programs
- many vaudeville stars became stars in radio and television
"What hath God wrought?"
Instantaneous long-distance communication
- Alexander Graham Bell
- March 10, 1876
"Mr. Watson, come here. I want you."
Instantaneous long-distance voice communication
- Edouard-Leon Scott de Martinville/Thomas Edison
"Mary had a little lamb..."
- Recording of voice communication
- Accustomed people to buying a peice of furniture for entertainment
- Recorded on a grooved cylinder -- could not duplicate
Emile Berliner, 1887
- Flat disc recording - easy to duplicate
- Development of sophisticated microphones
- Imported recording of famous European opera stars
Randomly related inventions:
- Light Bulb: leads to development of vacuum tubes
- Motion Pictures: created mass audience for visual entertainment and information
James Clerk Maxwell
- Scottish physicist
- published THEORY of electromagnetic energy
- German physicist
- proved the theories of Maxwell (electromagnetic energy)
- 1st person to transmit and receive radio waves
- Radio waves were first calle d"Hertzian waves"
- "Hertz" refers to cycles per second
- "It's of no use whatsoever"
- Proved no practical use for radio waves
- Italian inventor
- Develped radio as a means to send point-to-point messages
- Created a monopoly in wireless communication
- 1896 -- wireless era begins when Marconi files patent
- 1901 -- first transatlantic message (Morse code "s")
- Canadian professor
- 1903 -- invented liquid barretter
- 1906 -- developed continuous radio wave
- 1906 -- Christmas Eve broadcst to ships at sea
- American inventor
- 1906 -- developed Audion tube, permitted voice transmission
- 1908 -- broadcast music from the Eiffel tower in Paris
- Envisioned wireless radio as a "broadcast" medium
- Father of FM radio
- 1933 -- receives patent for wideband FM
Amplitude vs. Frequency
- Amplitude: the height of the waves
- Frequency: the number of waves
- Radio could have prevented or reduced the disaster
- Proved the value of radio in times of disaster
- Resulted in Radio Act of 1912 (requiring two wireless signal operators on all ships, during all times)
- *David Sarnoff picked up the distress signal*
Radio Music Box
- David Sarnoff's vision for radio
- Promoted radio as an entertainment medium in the home
- shift from point-to-point communication to broadcasting (agricultural term)
World War I radio
- Consolidation of competing patents developed radio as a reliable medium
First Radio Commercial
- August 28, 1922
- WEAF New York (ATT, flagship for NBC Red Network, WNBC, WRCA, WFAN)
- Long Island real estate firm Queensboro Corporation
- 10 minute ($50) message about living in the suburbs
Great Depression radio
- Radio becomes primary entertainment medium; phonograph sales decline
- Development of various program genres: comedy, audience participation, children's shows, soap operas, adventure, music, drama, religion, news
- Radio personalities become super stars (i.e. "Amos 'n' Andy")
Amos 'n' Andy
Radio personality stars during the great depression era of radio
- Newspapers would not allow wire services to provide news to radio stations
- Radio networks begine their own news-gathering activities
- Biltmore Agrement settled the press war
"War of the Worlds"
- Halloween eve, 1938
- Fictional radio show by Orson Welles
- Created nationwide panic (people thought it was real)
- Proved the impact of radio
World War II radio
- Radio used for war promotion, propaganda and morale
- Radio news provided live coverage
- News correspondents -- Edward R. Murrow, H.V. Kaltenborn, Eric Sevareid
- FCC broadcast freeze
- Development of tape recorders and 33 1/3 and 45 rpm records
Edward R. Murrow
WWII radio news correspondent
Television Age's affect on radio
- Radio networks diminish
- Development of formats (Todd Storz, Gordon McLendon) and disc jockeys (Alan Freed)
- Radio goes from national to local medium
popular disc jockey after the creation of disc jockeys b/c of television's affect
Federal Communications Commission (FCC)
- public ownership
- public interest, necessity and convenience
- spectrum scarcity
- human nature
- quality standards
- media protection
- assumed power
Radio Regulation History
- Wireless Ship Act of 1910 -- applied to ships with more than 50 passengers
- Radio Act of 1912 -- strengthened existing rules; licensed operators
- Radio Act of 1927 -- established Federal Radio Commission (FRC)
- Communications Act of 1934 -- established Federal Communications Commission (FCC)
Radio Corporation of America (RCA)
- David Sarnoff
- American Marconi, GE, AT&T, Westinghouse, United Fruit
- Dr. Frank Conrad
- 1st commercial radio station
- *1st radio station to offer regulary scheduled broadcasts*
National Broadcasting Company (NBC)
1926 -- David Sarnoff
1927 -- NBC Red and Blue networks
Columbia Broadcasting System (CBS)
1928 -- William S. Paley
(his family was involved in the tobacco/cigar industry)
Mutual Broadcasting System
- stations owned the network
- "The Lone Ranger"
American Broadcasting Company (ABC)
- 1943 -- Edward Noble
- Edward bought NBC's Blue network for form ABC
- Now the biggest, most successful network
(the Life Savers king)
Broadcasting vs. Narrowcasting
Narrowcasting: directed programming; targeting specific audience demographic
Broadcasting: non directed, and non targeted demographic. meant for mass communication
Radio MUST meet 3 requirements/purposes
- public interest
audience measurement service employing a 7-day diary to determine the number of listeners tuned to area stations
Chain Braodcasting (define)
Forerunner of network broadcasting
Digital Audio Radio Service
AM station required to leave the air at or near sunset
- Water, Earth, Air, Fire
- located in New York
- 1st radio station to air a commercial
Simultaneous broadcast over two or more frequencies
a single company which owns two or more stations in the same city or community.
95.3 KVHU is licensed out of where? owned by who?
- licensed out of Judsonia
- Owned by Flinn Broadcasting
What are the 5 Estates?
- 1st -- Clergy (Church)
- 2nd -- Nobility (Ruling Class)
- 3rd -- Common People
- 4th -- Press (public media)
- 5th -- Radio
radio Traffic (define)
- station department responsible for scheduling sponsor announcements.
- transmit to broadcast, propagate signal, air.
3 systems produce the human voice:
- respirations (breathing): lungs, diaphragm
- phonation (produces sound): larynx/vocal cords
- resonance (forming sounds): articulators and cavaties of the head
Breathing IN vs. Breathing OUT
In: chest expands, diaphragm contracts and moves down
Out: chest contracts, diaphragm relaxes and moves up into its dome shape
- the stronger the diaphragm the stronger the voice
- the diaphragm is a parachute shaped muscle
- inhaling deeply so that the diaphragm fully contracts and flattens out, as it flattens moving downward and expanding the abdominal area outward.
- "its ok to look fat"
7 voice articulators
- soft palate (velum)
- hard palate
- alveolar ridge
4 voice resonators
allows for control, shape, size of sound/cavities
- pharyngeal cavity
- oral cavity
- labial cavity
- nasal cavity
Factors influencing vocal quality (21)
relaxation, pitch (high/low), resonance (tone/timbre), articulation, placement, emphasis (force), inflection (pitch), pace (rate/tempo), variety, flow, physical animation (reflects vocal), personality, emotions, audience identification, mistakes, credibility, professionalism, reading, ad libbing (requires preparation), marking copy, microphones (2-6 inches from mouth)
"Excellent" announcer voices are usually well developed in 3 ways:
- they speak in a lower range with a pleasing resonant voice
- they speak at a pace that promotes easy comprehension by the listener
- they speak with execptional clarity of content
Common vocal problems are generally related to:
- monotone, sing-sing and whiny vocal styles
- lack of resonance or improper breathing
- excessive sibilance (the over-emphasis of the s sound) and popping (cause by a pop in the air in words wih p, b, t, d, k, and g)
What poem do we use a section of for breathing exercises?
Cataract of Lodore
about the Ladore Falls