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1. 20th Amendment –
- WHEN: 1933
- WHAT: this moved the inauguration from march to Jan 20, which shortened the lame duck period
- IMPORTANCE: presdinents wouldn't have to wait to start fixing things
2. Wickersham Commission -
- WHEN: Herbert Hoover established it in May 1929.
- WHAT: General Wickersham headed 11-member group charged with identifying the causes of crime and making recs for appropriate public policy.
- Focused on the widespread violations of prohibition:
- IMPORTANCE: Documented the negative effect prohibition was having on the country.
3. 21st Amendment –
- WHEN: 1933,
- WHAT: repealed Prohibition, gave the states the power to control their alcohol issues
- IMPORTANCE: made illegal alchol trade less profitable, new bar jobs
4. “bank holiday” -
- WHEN: 1933,
- WHAT: closed all the banks for a while, to stop the bank runs that were ruining it all;
- IMPORTANCE: gave FDR the time he needed to get the banks extra money and calm the public down
5. 100 days-
WHAT: the first 100 days of FDR’s presidency, which were filled with non-stop emergency legislation
6. “relief, recovery, reform” -
- WHAT: relief for the unemployed and poor; recovery of the economy to normal levels; reform of the financial system to prevent a repeat depression;
- IMPORTANCE: FDR wanted the New Deal to do this, this was his mantra
7. Brain Trust
- WHAT: academic team to advise Roosevelt during the New Deal
- IMPORTANCE: FDR had smart people helping him
8. Emergency Banking Relief Act –
- WHEN: FDR passed it in 1933;
- WHAT: close down bad banks and reorganize and reopen those banks strong enough to survive;gave FDR power to have control over finances
- WHAT KIND: RELIEF
- IMPORTANCE: people got confidence in banks again, stopped bank rush
9. Glass-Steagall Banking Reform Act –
- WHEN: 1933
- WHAT: established FDIC, introduced banking reforms separation of commercial and investment banking
- KIND: REFORM
- IMPORTANCE: reestablished trust in banks
10. Gold Clause Act –
- WHEN: 1934,
- WHAT: required that all gold held by the Federal Reserve be surrendered to the United States Department of the Treasury. Made the hoarding of gold illegal.
- KIND: REFORM
- IMPORTANCE: Took the US off the gold standard.
11. FDIC –
- WHEN: 1933, created by Glass-Steagall Act,
- WHAT: Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation guarantees the safety of deposits in member banks; ensures safety and soundness, performs certain consumer-protection functions, and manages failed banks.
- KIND: REFORM
- IMPORTANCE: Helped regain confidence in banks
12. NIRA -
- WHEN: 1933
- WHAT: National Industrial Recovery Act, protected collective bargaining, established a national public works program, devoted to industrial recovery, and authorized fair competition, guaranteed trade union rights, permitted the regulation of working standards, established PWA,
- KIND: Recovery, Reform
13. NRA – Blue Eagle -
- WHAT: National Recovery Administration, created by NIRA, primary New Deal agency; eliminate cut-throat competition by bringing industry, labor and government together to create codes of fair practices and set prices. Declared unconstitutional in 1935 by S Court; symbol was the blue eagle;
- KIND: Recovery
- IMPORTANCE: businesses that did not display the eagle were very often boycotted
14. AAA (1st and 2nd) –
- The first one:
- WHEN: 1933
- WHAT: paid farmers subsidies not to plant part of their land and to kill off excess livestock, to reduce crop surplus so to raise the value of crops; subsidies was generated through an exclusive tax on companies which processed farm products;
- declared unconstitutional in: 1936 in US v Butler;
- the second one:
- WHEN: 1938,
- WHAT: changed it so financing of the law's programs would be provided by the Federal Government;
- KIND: Recovery
- IMPORTANCE: Didn’t work all that well; made the big farms richer and ruined the small farms
15. CCC -
- WHEN: 1933
- WHAT: Civilian Conservation Corps was a public work relief program in the United States for young unemployed, unmarried men;
- KIND: Relief
- IMPORTANCE: provided unskilled manual labor jobs related to the conservation and development of natural resources; most popular of all the New Deal programs
16. FERA -
- WHAT: Federal Emergency Relief Administration, new name for (ERA) which President Herbert Hoover had created in 1932; replaced in 1935 by WPA; gave loans to the states to operate relief programs; headed by Harry Hopkins
- KIND: Relief
17. CWA -
- WHEN: 1933
- WHAT: Civil Works Administration, Hopkins headed it, created under FERA, created construction jobs, mainly improving or constructing buildings and bridges, ended in 1934
- KIND: relief
18. PWA – Harold Ickes -
- WHAT: Public Works Administration, headed by Secretary of the Interior Harold L. Ickes, created by NIRA, concentrated on the construction of large-scale public works such as dams and bridges, with the goal of providing employment, stabilizing purchasing power, and contributing to a revival of American industry, closed in 1939;
- didn’t hire unemployed directly:
- KIND: Recovery, Relief
19. WPA -
- WHAT: Works Progress Administration (renamed during 1939 as the Work Projects Administration; WPA) was the largest and most ambitious New Deal agency, employing millions to carry out public works projects, including the construction of public buildings and roads, and operated large arts, drama, media, and literacy projects.
- KIND: RELIEF
- IMPORTANCE: It fed children and redistributed food, clothing, and housing directly hired unemployed
20. Federal Housing Authority -
- WHAT: created as part of the National Housing Act of 1934; insured loans made by banks and other private lenders for home building and home buying.
- KIND: RECOVERY
- IMPORTANCE: The goals of this organization are to improve housing standards and condition and to stabilize the mortgage market.
21. SEC –
- WHEN: 1934,
- WHAT: Securities and Exchange Commission; increase public trust in the capital markets by requiring uniform disclosure of information about public securities offerings. regulates secondary trading between individuals and companies which are often unrelated to the original issuers of securities; regulate the stock market and prevent corporate abuses relating to the offering and sale of securities and corporate reporting. The SEC was given the power to license and regulate stock exchanges, the companies whose securities traded on them, and the brokers and dealers who conducted the trading
- KIND: REFORM
- Importance: set regs, still used today
22. TVA -
- WHAT: Tennessee Valley Authority, provide navigation, flood control, electricity generation, fertilizer manufacturing, and economic development in the Tennessee Valley; first large regional planning agency of the federal government
- KIND: Relief, Recovery, Reform
23. REA -
- WHEN: 1935
- WHAT: Rural Electrification Administration, REA made loans available to local electrification cooperatives, which operated lines and distributed electricity
- KIND: Reform,
- IMPORTANCE: encouraged rural electricity
24. NYA -
- WHEN: 1935-1943
- WHAT: National Youth Administration, part of the Works Progress Administration, hired student-age unemployed
- KIND: RELIEF
25. Indian Reorganization Act –
- WHEN: 1934,
- WHAT: reversal of the Dawes Act's privatization of common holdings of Indians, return to local self-government on a tribal basis. included provisions intended to create a sound economic foundation for the inhabitants of Indian reservations.
- KIND: Reform
- Import: tried to give Indians back their culture
26. Recognition of the USSR -
- WHEN: November 1933 -
- WHAT: In an effort to open trade with Russia, mutual recognition was negotiated. The financial results were disappointing
- IMPORT: although didn't get much trade, set foundations for working together during WWII
27. Wagner Act –
- WHEN: 1935,
- WHAT: limits the means with which employers may react to workers in the private sector who create labor unions, engage in collective bargaining, and take part in strikes
- KIND: REFORM
- IMPORT: helps the unions out
28. NLRB -
- WHAT: National Labor Relations Board, conducting elections for labor union representation and with investigating and remedying unfair labor practices
- KIND: REFORM
- IMPORT: helps unions, workers, out
29. Fair Labor Standards Act –
- WHEN: 1938,
- WHAT: replaced NIRA, established a national minimum wage, guaranteed 'time-and-a-half' for overtime in certain jobs, and prohibited most employment of minors in "oppressive child labor
- KIND: REFORM
- IMPORT: gives the workers rights
30. Congress of Industrial Organizations-
- WHAT: federation of unions that organized workers in industrial unions;
- IMPORT: supported Franklin D. Roosevelt and the New Deal Coalition, and was open to African Americans,
- WHEN: founded in 1935 inside AFl, split in 1936
31. Sit down strikes -
- WHAT: organized group of workers, usually employed at a factory or other centralized location, take possession of the workplace by "sitting down" at their stations;
- IMPORT: happened a lot in the 1930s though declared illegal
32. The Grapes of Wrath -
- WHEN: published in 1939 and written by John Steinbeck,
- WHAT: focused on poor family of sharecroppers caught up in dust bowl
- IMPORT: shows horror of the depression
33. Frances Perkins –
- WHO: US Sec of Labor 1933-1945, pulled labor into ND movement, CCC, PWA, FWA, NIRA; first woman in cabinet
- IMPORT: established unemployment benefits, pensions, and welfare, min wage and overtime
34. Eleanor Roosevelt -
WHO: supported the New Deal policies of her husband, FDR; became an advocate for civil rights; worked to enhance the status of working women
35. Keynesian Economics -
- WHAT: The British economist John Maynard Keynes believed that the government could pull the economy out of a depression by increasing government spending, thus creating jobs and increasing consumer buying power.
- IMPORTANCE: used in the Great Depression, didn't work
36. Deficit spending -
- Import: FDR's admnistration was based on this concept.
- WHAT: It involved stimulating consumer buying power, business enterprise, and ultimately employment by pouring billions of dollars of federal money into the economy even if the government didn't have the funds, and had to borrow money.
37. Monetary policy, fiscal policy -
- In monetary policy: government manipulates the nation's money supply to control inflation and depression.
- In fiscal policy: the government uses taxing and spending programs (including deficit spending) to control inflation and depression.
- IMPORT: fiscal policy was used in Great Depression by FDR
38. Revenue Act -
- WHEN: 1935 -
- WHAT: Increased income taxes on higher incomes and also increased inheritance, large gift, and capital gains taxes.
- KIND: REFORM, RECOVERY
- IMPORT: Didn’t do much to redistribute wealth, but people celebrated it anyway
39. Liberty League –
WHAT: formed in opposition to FDR and ND by conservative Democrats in 1934, fell apart after FDR’s win in 1936
40. Coalition of Democratic Party -
- WHAT: alignment of interest groups and voting blocs that supported the New Deal and voted for Democratic presidential candidates from 1932 until the late 1960s.
- WHO: the Democratic party, big city machines, labor unions, minorities (racial, ethnic and religious), liberal farm groups, intellectuals, and white Southerners.
- IMPORT: Voted Dem till the 60s
41. Huey Long
- WHO: created the Share Our Wealth program in 1934, advocated federal spending on public works, schools and colleges, and old age pensions.
- IMPORT: Preparing to challenge FDR in 1936 but he was assassinated in 1935
42. Father Charles Coughlin -
- WHO: one of the first political leaders to use radio to reach a mass audience, controversial Catholic priest; later becoming a harsh critic of Roosevelt as too friendly to bankers; 1934 he announced a new political organization called the "Nation's Union of Social Justice." He wrote a platform calling for monetary reforms, the nationalization of major industries and railroads, and protection of the rights of labor; anti-Semitic
- IMPORTANCE: Was one of FDRs critics
43. Dr. Francis Townsend -
- WHO: best known for his revolving old-age pension proposal during the Great Depression. Known as the "Townsend Plan,"
- IMPORT: this proposal influenced the establishment of the Roosevelt administration's Social Security system.
44. Election of 1936 –
- Dem: FDR (with VP Garner)
- Rep: Alf Landon (with VP Frank Knox)
- WHO WON: FDR won by a landslide b/c of his popular ND
45. 2nd New Deal -
- WHAT: improved use of national resources, security against old age, unemployment and illness, and slum clearance, as well as a national welfare program (the WPA) to replace state relief efforts. It is usually dated 1935-36, and includes programs to redistribute wealth, income and power in favor of the poor, the old, farmers and labor unions. The most important programs included Social Security, the National Labor Relations Act ("Wagner Act"), the Banking Act, rural electrification, and breaking up utility holding companies.
- IMPORTANCE: much more reform, regulation than first
46. Social Security Act –
- WHEN: 1935,
- WHAT: attempt to limit what were seen as dangers in the modern American life, including old age, poverty, unemployment, and the burdens of widows and fatherless children. Payments to current retirees are financed by a payroll tax on current workers' wages, half directly as a payroll tax and half paid by the employer
- KIND: Reform
- Import: still in use, created welfare state in capitalism system
47. “court packing” -
- WHAT: legislative initiative proposed by U.S. President FDR to add more justices to the U.S. Supreme Court. Roosevelt's purpose was to obtain favorable rulings regarding New Deal legislation that had been previously ruled unconstitutional. The central and most controversial provision of the bill would have granted the President power to appoint an additional Justice to the U.S. Supreme Court, up to a maximum of six, for every sitting member over the age of 70½.
- KIND: Reform
- IMPORT: His plan backfired, and drew force away from his ND, though it worked out in his favor eventually
48. Chief Justice Charles Evan Hughes –
- WHO: appointed by Hoover in 1930; defended the U.S. Supreme Court against President Franklin D. Roosevelt's attempt to pack its bench with additional justices.
- IMPORT: Found some ND to be unconstitutional, others to be constitutional
49. “conservative coalition” in Congress -
- WHEN: 1938 -
- WHAT: Coalition of conservative Democrats and Republicans who united to curb further New Deal legislators. Motivated by fears of excessive federal spending and the expansion of federal power.
- IMPORTANCE: tried to stop ND
50. Hatch Act –
- WHEN: 1939,
- WHAT: prohibit federal employees from engaging in partisan political activity; precluded federal employees from membership in "any political organization which advocates the overthrow of our constitutional form of government."
51. Nye Committee -
- WHAT: committee of the United States Senate which studied the causes of United States' involvement in World War I.
- IMPORT: It was a significant factor in heightening public and political support for neutrality in the early stages of World War II.
52. “merchants of death” -
WHAT: Liberal isolationists' term for companies which manufactured armaments. They felt that the companies were undermining national interests by assisting aggressor nations.
53. Neutrality legislation -
- WHAT" spurred by the growth in isolationism and non-interventionism in the US following its costly involvement in World War I,
- 1935: imposed a general embargo on trading in arms and war materials with all parties in a war. It also declared that American citizens traveling on warring ships traveled at their own risk.
- 1936: renewed the provisions of the 1935 act for another 14 months. It also forbade all loans or credits to belligerents.
- 1937: extended to cover civil wars, U.S. ships were prohibited from transporting any passengers or articles to belligerents, and U.S. citizens were forbidden from traveling on ships of belligerent nations. Also had cash-and-carry clause
- 1939: allowing for arms trade with belligerent nations on a cash and carry basis, thus in effect ending the arms embargo. Furthermore, the Neutrality Acts of 1935 and 1937 were repealed, American citizens and ships were barred from entering war zones designated by the President
- IMPORTANCE: acts got less and less neutral, favoring allies, dragging us into WWII
54. Spanish Civil War –
- WHEN: 1936
- WHAT: Spain had established a leftist, democratic government in the 1930s. In July, 1936, Gen. Fransisco Franco and other army leaders staged a coup and installed a right-wing fascist government, touching off a civil war between loyalist Republican forces (aided by Russia) and Franco's Fascist party (aided by Mussolini and Hitler). Franco won in 1939
- IMPORTANCE: Franco was a puppet of Hitler
55. Ethiopia -
- WHAT: Mussolini invaded, conquering it in 1936. The League of Nations failed to take any effective action against Mussolini, and the U.S. just looked on.
- IMPORT: exposed the inherent weakness of the League of Nations
56. Mussolini –
- WHO: created Fascism, took control of Italy, declared war on France and GB, deposed in 1943
- IMPORTANCE: He is in charge of the army in Italy that US is fighting
57. Japan attacks China – Chiang Kai-shek -
WHAT: Chinese leader Kai-Shek defeated the Communists in China, sending them back to Russia and instituting the Kuomintang government. Then in 1931, Japan seized Manchuria from China.
58. Panay Incident -
- WHAT: Japanese attack on the United States Navy gunboat USS Panay while she was anchored in the Yangtze River outside Nanking (now known as Nanjing) on December 12, 1937. The Japanese claimed that they did not see the United States flags painted on the deck of the gunboat, apologized, and paid an indemnity.
- IMPORT: the attack and the subsequent Allison incident in Nanking caused U.S. opinion to turn against the Japanese.
59. “Quarantine speech” –
- WHEN: given by FDR in 1937;
- WHAT: calling for an international "quarantine of the aggressor nations" as an alternative to the political climate of American neutrality and non-intervention that was prevalent at the time. Roosevelt suggested the use of economic pressure, a forceful response, but less direct than outright aggression.
- IMPORT: The speech intensified America's isolationist mood, causing protest by non-interventionists and foes to intervention.
60. Hitler, Nazism -
- WHO: German facist dictator. Leader of the National Socialist Workers Party, or Nazis. Elected Chancellor of Germany in 1933, he quickly established himself as an absolute dictator. Nazism involved biological racism and antisemitism
- IMPORT: Started WWII
61. Munich Conference, appeasement, Chamberlain -
- WHEN: 1938 -
- WHAT: Hitler wanted to annex the Sudetenland, a portion of Czechoslovakia whose inhabitents were mostly German-speaking. On Sept. 29, Germany, Italy, France, and Great Britain signed the Munich Pact, which gave Germany the Sudetenland. British Prime Minister Chamberlain justified the pact with the belief that appeasing Germany would prevent war.
- IMPORT: he's Remembered as an idiot later when Germany invaded the rest of Czechoslovakia
62. Austria annexed –
- WHEN: 1938,
- WHAT: After the Austrian leader resigned under growing Nazi pressure, German troops set up a government called the Ansehluss, which was a union of Germany and Austria.
- IMPORT: The Allies didn’t do anything even though the treaty of Versailles forbid the union.
63. Nonaggression pact –
- WHEN: 1939,
- WHAT: Soviet Union and Nazi Germany each pledged to remain neutral in the event that either nation were attacked by a third party. It remained in effect until 22 June 1941, when Germany invaded the Soviet Union.
- IMPORT: it let Germany be able to start WWII
64. Invasion of Poland – Blitzkrieg -
- WHEN: September, 1939 -
- WHAT: Germany used series of "lightning campaigns" to conquer Poland.
- IMPORT: The invasion caused Great Britain and France to declare war on Germany.
65. Axis powers -
- WHAT: A series of treaties in 1936 and 37 between Germany, Italy, and Japan created what was called the "Rome-Berlin-Tokyo Axis." The coutries were thereafter refered to as the Axis Powers.
- IMPORT: who the Allies were fighting against
66. “cash and carry” -
- WHAT: Stated the warring nations wishing to trade with the U.S. would have to pay cash and carry the goods away in their own ships.
- IMPORT: Benefitted the Allies, since German ships could not reach the U.S. due to the Allied blockades.
67. Fall of France -
- When: Summer, 1941 -
- WHAT: Germany invaded France and set up the Vichey government, which lasted until the Allies invaded in 1944.
68. Isolationism – Lindbergh -
WHO: Lindbergh, known for making the first solo flight across the Atlantic, became politically controversial because he was an isolationist and pro-Germany.
69. Smith Act –
- WHEN: 1940,
- WHAT: Required fingerprinting and registering of all aliens in the U.S. and made it a crime to teach or advocate the violent overthrow of the U.S. government.
70. Tojo -
WHO: Prime Minister of Japan (1941-1944) and leading advocate of Japanese military conquest during World War II.
71. Election of 1940 –
- Dem: FDR ran for a 3rd term, (Wallace was VP)
- Rep: Willkie (VP- McNary)
- ISSUE: Roosevelt, acutely aware of strong isolationist sentiment in the U.S., promised there would be no involvement in foreign wars if he were re-elected. Willkie conducted an energetic campaign and managed to revive Republican strength in areas of the Midwest and Northeast.
- WHO WON: Roosevelt won a comfortable victory by building strong support from labor unions, big-city political machines, ethnic voters, and the traditionally Democratic Solid South.
72. “lend lease”
- WHEN: March 1941 -
- WHAT: Authorized the president to transfer, lend, or lease any article of defense equipment to any government whose defense was deemed vital to the defense of the U.S.
- IMPORT: Allowed the U.S. to send supplies and ammunition to the Allies without technically becoming a co-belligerent.
73. Atlantic charter -
- WHEN:August 1941 -
- WHAT:Drawn up by FDR and Churchill with eight main principles:
- 1: Renunciation of territorial aggression
- 2: No territorial changes without the consent of the peoples concerned
- 3: Restoration of sovereign rights and self-government
- 4: Access to raw material for all nations
- 5: World economic cooperation
- 6: Freedom from fear and want
- 7: Freedom of the seas
- 8: Disarmament of aggressors
74. Pearl Harbor -
- WHEN: 7:50-10:00 AM, December 7, 1941
- WHAT: - Surprise attack by the Japanese on the main U.S. Pacific Fleet harbored in Pearl Harbor, Hawaii destroyed 18 U.S. ships and 200 aircraft. American losses were 3000, Japanese losses less than 100.
- IMPORT: In response, the U.S. declared war on Japan. Couldn’t believe that Japanese were capable of it.
75. Japanese Relocation -
WHAT: The bombing of Pearl Harbor created widespread fear that the Japanese living in the U.S. were actually spies. FDR issued executive order 9066, which moved all Japanese and people of Japanese descent living on the west coast of the U.S. into internment camps in the interior of the U.S.
76. Bond drives -
WHAT: Celebrities and government representatives traveled around the U.S. selling government bonds to raise money for the war effort. Extremely successful in raising funds.
77. War Production Board –
- WHEN: established by FDR in 1942;
- WHAT: regulate the production and allocation of materials and fuel during World War II in the United States. The WPB converted and expanded peacetime industries to meet war needs, allocated scarce materials vital to war production, established priorities in the distribution of materials and services, and prohibited nonessential production. It rationed such things as gasoline, heating oil, metals, rubber, paper and plastics.
78. Office of Price Administration -
- WHAT: established within the Office for Emergency Management of the United States Government by Executive Order 8875 on August 28, 1941.
- IMPORT: The functions of the OPA were originally to control prices (price controls) and rents after the outbreak of World War II.
79. Eisenhower and MacArthur –
- Eisenhower: served as the supreme commander of the western Allied forces and became chief of staff in 1941. Sent to Great Britain in 1942 as the U.S. commander in Europe.
- MacArthur: was Military governor of the Philippines, which Japan invaded a few days after the Pearl Harbor attack. MacArthur escaped to Australia in March 1942 and was appointed supreme commander of the Allied forces in the Pacific. Recieved the Medal of Honor.
80. 2nd front -
- WHAT: The Russians were suffering heavy casualties fighting the German invasion of Russia. Stalin urged the Allies to open a "second front" in the west to relieve the pressure on the Russians. The Allies did so, but only after a long delay and not in france like the soviets wanted.
- IMPORT: This contributed to bad feelings that caused the Cold war
81. D-Day -
- WHEN: June 6, 1944 -
- WHAT: Led by Eisenhower, over a million troops (the largest invasion force in history) stormed the beaches at Normandy and began the process of re-taking France.
- IMPORT: The turning point of World War II.
82. Stalingrad -
- WHAT: Site of critical World War II Soviet victory that reversed Germany's advance to the East. In late 1942, Russian forces surrounded the Germans, and on Feb. 2, 1943, the German Sixth Army surrendered.
- IMPORT: First major defeat for the Germans in World War II.
83. Churchill -
WHO: Prime minister of Great Britain during World War II. His steadfast refusal to consider defeat, surrender or a compromise peace helped inspire British resistance, especially during the difficult early days of the War when Britain stood alone in its active opposition to Hitler. Churchill was particularly noted for his speeches and radio broadcasts, which helped inspire the British people. He led Britain as Prime Minister until victory had been secured over Nazi Germany.
84. Casablanca Conference -
- WHEN: Jan. 14-23, 1943 -
- WHO: FDR and Chruchill
- WHERE: Morocco
- WHAT: settle the future strategy of the Allies following the success of the North African campaign. They decided to launch an attack on Italy through Sicily before initiating an invasion into France over the English Channel. Also announced that the
- Allies would accept nothing less than Germany's unconditional surrender to end the war:
85. Cairo Conference -
- WHEN: November, 1943 -
- WHO: A meeting of Allied leaders Roosevelt, Churchill, and Chiang Kai-Shek
- WHERE: in Egypt
- WHAT: define the Allies goals with respect to the war against Japan, they announced their intention to seek Japan's unconditional surrender and to strip Japan of all territory it had gained since WWI.
86. Tehran Conference
- WHEN: - December, 1943 -
- WHO: A meeting between FDR, Churchill and Stalin
- WHERE: in Iran
- WHAT: discuss coordination of military efforts against Germany, they repeated the pledge made in the earlier Moscow Conference to create the United Nations after the war's conclusion to help ensure international peace. plan the final strategy for the war against Nazi Germany and its allies, set date for Operation Overlord
- IMPORT: first meeting btwn FDR, Churchill, and stalin;
87. “unconditional surrender” -
- WHAT: It means the victor decides all the conditions the loser must agree to.
- IMPORT: The Allies wanted Germany and Japan to agree to unconditional surrender.
88. Battle of Bulge -
- WHEN: December, 1944-January, 1945 -
- WHAT: After recapturing France, the Allied advance became stalled along the German border. In the winter of 1944, Germany staged a massive counterattack in Belgium and Luxembourg which pushed a 30 mile "bulge" into the Allied lines. The Allies stopped the German advance and threw them back across the Rhine with heavy losses.
Yalta Conference -
- WHEN: 1945
- WHO: FDR, Churchill, Stalin
- WHAT: discussing Europe's post-war reorganization. Mainly, it was intended to discuss the re-establishment of the nations of war-torn Europe. Germany and Berlin would be split into four occupied zones. It was agreed to reorganize the communist Provisional Government of the Republic of Poland that had been installed by the Soviet Union "on a broader democratic basis." The Polish eastern border would follow the Curzon Line, and Poland would receive territorial compensation in the West from Germany. Roosevelt obtained a commitment by Stalin to participate in the United Nations. Stalin agreed to enter the fight against the Empire of Japan within 90 days after the defeat of Germany. Nazi war criminals were to be hunted down and brought to justice.
- WHEN: 1945
- WHO: Stalin, Churchill, and Truman
- WHAT: the establishment of post-war order, peace treaties issues, and countering the effects of war.issued the Potsdam Declaration which outlined the terms of surrender for Japan during WWII in Asia.
89. Manhattan Project -
WHAT: A secret U.S. project for the construction of the atomic bomb.
90. J. Robert Oppenheimer -
WHOPhysics professor at U.C. Berkeley and CalTech, he headed the U.S. atomic bomb project in Los Alamos, New Mexico. He later served on the Atomic Energy Commission, although removed for a time the late 1950's, over suspicion he was a Communist sympathizer.
91. Atomic bomb -
WHAT: A bomb that uses the fission of radioactive elements such as uranium or plutonium to create explosions equal to the force of thousands of pounds of regular explosives.
92. Hiroshima, Nagasaki -
- WHAT: First and second cities to be hit by atomic bombs, they were bombed after Japan refused to surrender and accept the Potsdam Declaration. Hiroshima was bombed on August 6, 1945 and Nagasaki was bombed on August 9, 1945.
- IMPORT: Bombing made japan surrender
93. Revenue Act of 1942 -
WHAT: Effort to increase tax revenues to cover the cost of WWII by adding additional graduated steps to the income tax and lowering the threshold at which lower income earners began to pay tax.
94. GI Bill of Rights -
- WHEN: 1944 -
- WHAT: Servicemen's Readjustment Act, also called the G.I. Bill of Rights. Granted $13 billion in aid for former servicemen, ranging from educational grants to housing and other services to assist with the readjustment to society after demobilization.
- IMPORT: helped stop everyone looking for new jobs, helped get generation of people with college degrees
95. Postwar inflation -
WHAT: The high volume of U.S. spending during the war, which reached an estimated $341 billion, and pent up consumer demand caused by war-time rationing led to inflation after the war.
96. Baby boom-
WHAT: 30 million war babies were born between 1942 and 1950. Caused a burden on the education system
97. Employment Act of 1946 -
- WHAT: Started because of the flood of available workers after WWII. Established the Council of Economic Advisors.
- IMPORT: declared that the government was committed to maintaining maximum employment.
98. Taft-Hartley Act -
- WHEN:1947 -
- WHAT: Senator Robert A. Taft co-authored the labor-Management Relations Act with new Jersey Congressman Fred Allan Hartley, Jr. The act amended the National Labor Relations Act of 1935 and imposed certain restrictions of the money and power of labor unions, including a prohibition against mandatory closed shops.
- IMPORT: tooks away some of the power of unions
99. Sen. Robert Taft -
WHO: A key Republican leader in the Senate and a supporter of Joseph McCarthy.
100. right to work laws -
- State laws that provide that unions cannot impose a requirement that workers join the union as a condition of their employment.
- IMPORT: another blow to the unions
101. 1948 election -
- Democrat: Harry Truman,
- Republican: John Dewey,
- States' Rights Democrat (Dixiecrat): Strom Thurmond,
- Progressive: Henry Wallace
- The Democratic party was torn apart by the dispute between the liberal civil rights platform of the majority and the conservative, states' rights views of the southern membership, and the Progressive party pulled away liberal votes as well.
- WHO WON: Although everyone expected Dewey to win, Truman managed a surprise victory.
102. Dixiecrats, Strom Thurmond -
- WHAT: Southern Democrats disgruntled over the strong civil rights proposals of the Democrats' 1948 National Convention. Formed the States' Rights Democratic Party and nominated Thurmond (governor of South Carolina) for president.
- Policies: opposed racial integration and wanted to retain Jim Crow laws and white supremacy.
103. Progressive Party, Henry Wallace -
WHO: Former vice-president under FDR, Wallace ran for president with the Progressive Party, a branch of the Democrats who opposed the Cold War and the policy of containment. He lost but became secretary of commerce under Truman.
104. Fair Deal - Truman's policy agenda --
WHAT: he raised the minimum wage from 65 to 75 cents an hour, expanded Social Security benefits to cover 10 million more people, and provided government funding for 100,000 low-income public housing units and for urban renewal.
105. National Security Act -
- WHEN: 1947 -
- WHAT: Created the cabinet post of Secretary of Defense, the CIA, and the National Security Council.
- WHEN: 1949 - Created NATO.
106. 1952 election -
- Republicans: Eisenhower/Nixon,
- Democrats:Adlai Stevenson
- Issues: were conservatism and containment of Communism.
- WHO WON: Republicans won by a landslide.
107. Ike and Modern Republicanism -
WHAT: Conservative about federal spending, liberal about personal freedoms. Believed in a balanced budget and lower taxes, but not in getting rid of existing social and economic legislation
108. fiscal management -
WHAT: Starting in 1950, the federal government controlled expenditures by regulating the budget, including the deficit.
109. Ayn Rand - The Fountainhead -
WHAT: She wrote this novel in 1943 to express her extreme conservative views and her belief that communism was inherently unworkable. Her philosophy was that society functions best when each individual pursues his or her own self-interest, called objectivism.
110. Interstate Highway Act
- WHEN: 1956, by Ike,
- WHAT: authorization of 25 billion dollars for the construction of 41,000 miles (66,000 km) of the Interstate Highway System supposedly over a 20-year period, it was the largest public works project in American history through that time.
111. St. Lawrence Seaway -
WHAT: Waterway to connect Great Lakes on the U.S./Canadian border to the Atlantic Ocean via the St. Lawrence River, it allowed better shipping and transportation, and improved international relations and trade.
112. AFL-CIO merger -
WHAT: In 1955 at a New York City Convention, these two once-rival organizations decided to put aside their differences and unite. Had a total membership of over 15 million.
WHAT: Cost of living adjustment, by 1950s most companies had COLA built into their contracts
National Outdoor Recreation Review Commission
- When: 1958
- What: first step in protecting wilderness