chapter Seven.txt

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Author:
dwatters
ID:
74819
Filename:
chapter Seven.txt
Updated:
2011-03-23 18:13:31
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Skeletal system
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Description:
Bio 100
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  1. Skeletal System
    • * Parts of the skeletal system include
    • o Bones
    • o Joints [connects bone to bone]
    • o Cartilages
    • o Ligaments
    • * The adult skeleton has 206 bones
  2. Skeletal System
    • * Two major divisions:
    • * Axial Skeleton
    • o Skull, hyoid bone, vertebral column, & thoracic cage.
    • * Appendicular skeleton
    • o Pectoral girdle, upper limbs, pelvic girdle, & lower limbs
  3. Axial & Appendicular Skeletons
    • * Axial
    • o Head, thorax, and vertebral column
    • * Appendicular
    • * Pectoral girdle
    • o Shoulder and upper limbs
    • * Pelvic girdle
    • o Pelvis and lower limbs
  4. Long Bone I
    • * thigh bone (femur)
    • * epiphysis: expanded portion
    • * diapiphysis: shaft between the two epiphysis
    • * periosteum: tough fibrous tissue that helps in bone repair
    • [covers bone membrane]
  5. Long Bone II
    • * medullary cavity is hollow chamber along the shaft
    • * bone marrow: connective tissue that fills the medulary cavity. Could be red or yellow
  6. Microscopice anatomy of long bone I
    • * osteocytes are bone cells located in lacuna
    • * osteocytes communicate with neighboring cells through small canals called canaliculi
  7. Microscopic anatomy of Long Bone II
    • * Matrix is made of collagen and calcium phosphate
    • * Lamaelle are rings around the central canal
    • * Central canal opening that carries blood vessels and nerves
  8. Endochondral Bone development
    • * Occurs in most bones in the body
    • * Bones develop from hyaline cartilage
    • * Cartilage models starts to grow
    • * Changes start in center of diaphysis
    • * Cartilage cells become calcified
    • * Periosteum develop from connective tissue and encircle the bone
  9. Endochondral Bone development
    • * Blood vessels and bone cells (known as osteoblasts) from the periosteum start to invade the calcified cartilage replacing spongy bones
    • * This is known as a primary ossification center
    • * Osteoblasts (immature bone cells) in the periosteum deposit compact bones around the primary ossification center
  10. Endochondral Bone development
    • * Secondary ossification center appears in the epiphysis
    • * Spongy bone form in all directions
    • * Epiphyseal plate remains between the two ossification centers
    • * Epiphyseal plate is made of cartilaginous cells that keep dividing
    • * These cells enlarge
    • * Bone lengthens
  11. Adult bones
    • * Bones stop growing when the epiphyseal plate ossifies
    • * Adolescence
    • * Stores calcium
    • * Two hormones play a role in maintaining calcium levels in the blood
    • * Calcitonin´┐Żlowers calcium levels in the blood
    • * *Parathyroid´┐Żraises calcium levels in the blood
    • * *[antagonist hormone--opposite]
  12. Adult bone
    • * Bone marrow is found in the epipthysis (red) and diaphysis
    • (yellow)
    • * Red marrow: functions in the formation of red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets
    • * Yellow marrow: stores fat [back up]

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