CH Midterm [1]

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CH Midterm [1]
2011-03-29 00:33:02
voltaire candide pierre bayle

CH midterm #2
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  1. Voltaire
    • published Candide
    • era:1694-1778

    • -wrote politically and sexually scandalous writing and life.
    • -imprisoned in Bastille for writing satirical poetry
    • -One of the great enlightenment thinkers
    • -Shit happens (it's god's will, one day you will be rewarded)->enlightenment
  2. Candide [social outcomes]
    • Date: 1759
    • By: Voltair
    • Published annonomously, sold "under the counter"
    • Banned within a couple of months in Switzerland/Germany.
    • --Remember, what's taken away can just be printed again!
    • Tells us: literacy is increasing, cheap to print, related to social change
  3. Candide [Summary and Analysis]
    • Date: 1759
    • Satire! uses humor, ridicule, attack of failings
    • -Voltaire is not sarcastic, he's just a moron.
    • -can you ever be enlightened if you're uneducated? NO!

    Linked with Kant, Reusseau, Hobbes, Locke, why?

    • Not a novel, but conte philosophique [new genre]
    • -created to prove philosophical/moral point
    • -critique of optimism

    • Summary/Analysis:
  4. Pierre Bayle
    • 1654-1706
    • Is the universe friendly?
    • -linked with Hobbes, life is miserable!
    • --We experience misery more than happiness
    • --good God would not have allowed evil into world
    • --more people damned than saved (devil>God)
    • --Struggle between good/evil
  5. Leibniz
    • 1646-1716
    • -Optimistic
    • -God exists b/c God requires it
    • -God creates diversity in universe governed by few principles.

    • Challenges?
    • -is this the best universe? or on we on the worst world and century?
    • -everything is layed out in a plan, no free will, accidents, or improvments.
    • How is this "paradise" destroyed he speaks of? how did sin/death take over?
  6. Candide [challenge to optimism, why?]
    • world is chaotic and evil.
    • pretend world is good, and DEAL with it!
    • Learn to cope with chaos/evil/cultivate our own place
    • All is good, we just need to cultivate it
    • do what makes you happy
    • move where things work for you!
  7. [Review] Values of Enlightenment
    • reject superstition
    • challenge irrationality
    • secular, human-centered perspective
    • rationalism
    • experimental method
    • education
    • self-improvement with arts/literature
    • unlimited progress!
    • Just b/c it's funny, doesn't mean it's not serious.
    • Later changed
  8. Claire De Duras
    • Date: 1777-1828
    • From aristocracy
    • wrote Ourika- loosely based on a true story
    • published for friends-then best seller
  9. Ourika
    • Date:1823
    • Remember Ourika is our age!
    • themes: identity and difference
    • --How do I define myself? by not being you.
    • ----If you guys are treating us horribly, what are you teaching us? to be like you.
    • Ourika's mother doesn't prepare her for the harsh real world.
    • just b/c you're born outside of slavery, doesnt mean you're free!
    • psychological effects of racism
    • Agency is Ourika's anarexia.
    • Analysis:
  10. The Guillotine
    • "rational" execution
    • Quick, humane, treat all classes equally, executioner non murderer
    • part of french Revolution
  11. The Estates- General meet
    • 1788
    • Tradiional mechanism for facing crises
    • Hasn't met met in so long, no one remembers knows/agrees
    • nobility wants one vote per estate
    • third estate wants one vote per member
    • third estate (more of a representative government)