chapter 6 terms

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chapter 6 terms
2010-02-20 18:17:49

medical terminology
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  1. aorta
    largest artery of the body; vessel through which oxygenated blood exits the heart
  2. aortic valve
    valve between the aorta and the left ventricle
  3. arteriole
    a tiny artery connecting to a capillary
  4. artery
    a thick-walled blood vessel that, in systemic circulation, carries oxygenated blood away from the heart
  5. atrioventricular bundle
    bundle of fibers in the interventricular septum that transfers charges in the heart's conduction system; also called bundle of His
  6. atrioventricular (AV) node
    specialized part of the interatrial septum that sends a charge to the bundle of His
  7. atrioventricular valve
    one of two valves that control blood flow between the atria and ventricles
  8. atrium
    either of the two upper chambers of the heart
  9. bicuspid valve
    atrioventricular valve on the left side of the heart
  10. blood
    essential fluid made up of plasma and other elements that circulates throughout the body; delivers nutrients to and removes wate from the body's cells
  11. blood pressure
    measure of the force of blood surging against the walls of the arteries
  12. blood vessels
    any of the tubular passageways in the cardiovascular system through which blood travels
  13. bundle of His
    see atrioventricular bundle
  14. capillary
    the smallest blood vessel that forms the exchange point between the arterial and venous vessels
  15. carbon dioxide (CO2)
    waste material tranported in the venous blood
  16. cardiac cycle
    repeated contraction and relaxtion of the heart as it circulates blood within itself and pumps it out to the rest of the body or the lungs.
  17. cardiovascular
    relating to or affecting the heart and blood vessels
  18. carotid artery
    artery that transports oxygenated blood to the head and neck
  19. conduction system
    part of the heart containing specialized tissue that sends electrical charges through heart fibers, causing the heart to contract and relax at regular intervals
  20. coronarty artery
    blood vessel that supplies oxygen-rich blood to the heart
  21. depolarization
    contracting state of the myocardial tissue in the heart's conduction system
  22. diastole
    relaxation phase of a heartbeat
  23. ductus arteriosus
    structure in the fetal circulatory system through which blood flows to bypass the fetus's nonfunctioning lungs.
  24. ductus venosus
    structure in the fetal circulatory system through which blood flows to bypass the liver
  25. endocardium
    membranous lining of the chambers and valves of the heart; the innermost layer of heart tissue
  26. endothelium
    lining of the arteries that secretes substances into the blood
  27. epicardium
    outermost layer of heart tissue
  28. femoral artery
    an artery that supplies blood to the thigh
  29. foramen ovale
    opening in the septum of the fetal heart that closes at birth
  30. heart
    muscular organ that receives blood from the veins and sens it into the arteries
  31. inferior vena cava
    large vein that draws blood from the lower part of the body to the right atrium
  32. left atrium
    upper left heart chamber
  33. left ventricle
    lower left heart chamber
  34. lumen
    channel inside an artery through which blood flows
  35. mitral valve
    see bicupsid valve
  36. myocardium
    muscular layer of heart tissue between the epicardium and the endocardium
  37. pacemaker
    term for the sinoatrial (SA) node; also, an artificial device that regulates heart rhythm
  38. pericardium
    protective covering of the heart
  39. polarization
    resting state of the myocardial tissue in the conduction system of the heart
  40. popliteal artery
    an artery that supplies blood to the cells of the area behind the knee
  41. pulmonary artery
    one of two arteries that carry blood that is low in oxygen from the heart to the lungs
  42. pulmonary valve
    valve that controls the blood flow between the right ventricle and the pulmonary arteries
  43. pulmonary vein
    one of four veins that bring oxgenated blood from the lungs to the left atrium
  44. pulse
    rhythmic expansion and contraction of a of a blood vessel, usually an artery
  45. repolarization
    recharging state; transition from contraction to resting that occurs in the conduction system of the heart
  46. right atrium
    upper right chamber of the heart
  47. right ventricle
    lower right chamber of the heart
  48. saphenous vein
    any of a group of veins that transport deoxygenated blood from the legs
  49. semilunar valve
    one of the two valves that prevent the backflow of blood flowing out of the heart into the aorta and the pulmonary artery
  50. septum
    partition between the left and right chambers of the heart
  51. sinoartrial (SA) node
    region of the right atrium containing specialized tissue that sends electrical impulses to the heart muscle, causing it to contract
  52. sinus rhythm
    normal heart rhythm
  53. superior vena cava
    large vein that transports blood collected from the upper part of the body to the heart
  54. systole
    contraction phase of the heartbeat
  55. tricuspid valve
    atrioventricular valve on the right side of the heart
  56. valve
    any of various structures that slow or prevent fluid from flowing backward or foward
  57. vein
    any various blood vessels carrying deoxygenated blood toward the heart, except the pulmonary vein
  58. vena cava
    see superior vena cava and inferior vena cava
  59. ventricle
    either of the two lower chambers of the heart
  60. venule
    a tiny vein contracting to a capillary
  61. angi(o)
    blood vessel
  62. aort(o)
  63. arteri(o), arter(o)
  64. ather(o)
    fatty matter
  65. atri(o)
  66. cardi(o)
  67. hemangi(o)
    blood vessel
  68. pericardi(o)
  69. phleb(o)
  70. sphygm(o)
  71. thromb(o)
    blood clot
  72. vas(o)
    blood vessel
  73. ven(o)
  74. AcG
    accelerator globulin
  75. AF
    atrial fibrillation
  76. AMI
    acute myocardial infarction
  77. AS
    aortic stenosis
  78. ASCVD
    arteriosclerotic cardiovascular disease
  79. ASD
    atrial septal defect
  80. ASHD
    arteriosclerotic heart disease
  81. AV
  82. BP
    blood pressure bpm beats per minute
  83. CABG
    coronary artery bypass grant
  84. CAD
    coronary artery disease
  85. cath
  86. CCU
    coronary care unit
  87. CHD
    coronary heart disease
  88. CHF
    congestive heart failure
  89. CO
    cardiac output
  90. CPK
    creatine phosphokinase
  91. CPR
    cardiopulmonary resuscitation
  92. CVA
    cerebrovascular disease
  93. DIC
    disseminated intravascular coagulation
  94. DSA
    digital subtraction angiography
  95. DVT
    deep venous thromosis
  96. ECG, EKG
  97. ECHO
  98. ETT
    exercise tolerance test
  99. GOT
    glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase
  100. HDL
    high-density lipoprotein
  101. HR
    heart rate
  102. LDH
    lactate dehydrogenase
  103. LDL
  104. LV
    left ventricle
  105. LVH
    left ventricular hypertrophy
  106. MI
    mitral insufficiency; myocardial infarction
  107. MR
    mitral regurgitation
  108. MS
    mitral stenosis
  109. MUGA
    multiple-gated acquisition scan
  110. MVP
    mitral valve prolapse
  111. PAC
    premature atrial contraction
  112. PTCA
    percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty
  113. PVC
    premature ventricular contraction
  114. SA
  115. SV
    stroke volume
  116. TC
    total cholesterol
  117. tPA, TPA
    tissue plasminogen activator
  118. VLDL
    very low-density lipoprotein
  119. VSD
    ventricular septal defect
  120. VT
    ventricular tachycardia
  121. angiocardography
    viewing of the heart and its major blood vessels by x-ray after injection of a contrast medium
  122. angiography
    viewing of the heart's major blood vessels by x-ray after injection of a contrast medium
  123. aortography
    viewing of the aorta by x-ray after injection of a contrast medium
  124. arteriography
    viewing of a specific artery by x-ray after injection of a contrast medium
  125. auscultation
    process of listening to body sounds via a stethoscope
  126. cardiac catheterization
    process of passing a thin catheter through an artery or vein to the heart to take blood samples, inject a contrast medium, or measure various pressures
  127. cardiac enzyme tests/studies
    blood tests for determining levels of enzymes during a myocardial infarction; serum enzyme tests
  128. cardiac MRI
    viewing of the heart by magnetic resonance imaging
  129. cardiac scan
    process of viewing the heart muscle at work by scanning the heart of a patient into whom a radioactive substance has been injected
  130. cholesterol
    fatty substance present in animal fats; cholesterol circulates in the bloodstream, sometime causing arterial plaque to form
  131. digital subtraction angiography
    use of two angiograms done with different dyes to provide a comparison between the results
  132. Doppler ultrasound
    ultrasound test of blood flow in certain blood vessels
  133. echocardiography
    use of sound waves to produce images showing the structure and motion of the heart
  134. ejection fraction
    percentage of the volume of the contents of the left ventricle ejected with each contraction
  135. electrocardiography
    use of the electrocardiograph in diagnosis
  136. Holter monitor
    portable device that provides a 24-hour electrocardiogram
  137. lipid profile
    laboratory test that provides the levels of lipids, triglycerides, and other substances in the blood
  138. multiple-gated acquisition (MUGA) angiography
    radioactive scan showing heart function
  139. phlebography
    viewing of a vein by x-ray after injection of a contrast medium
  140. positron emission tomography (PET) scan
    type of nuclear image that measures movement of the heart
  141. serum enzyme tests
    laboratory tests performed to detect enzymes present during or after a myocardial infarction; cardiac enzyme studies
  142. sonography
    production of images based on the echoes of sound waves against structures
  143. sphygmomanometer
    device for measuring blood pressure
  144. stress test
    test that measures heart rate, blood pressure, and other body functions while the patient is exercising on a treadmill
  145. trigylceride
    fatty substance;lipid
  146. venography
    viewing of a vein by x-ray after injection of a contrast medium
  147. ventriculogram
    x-ray of a ventricle taken after injection of a contrast medium
  148. aneurysm
    ballooning of the artery wall caused by weakness in the wall
  149. angina
    angina pectoris
  150. angina pectoris
    chest pain, usually caused by a lowered oxygen or blood supply to the heart
  151. aortic regurgitation or reflux
    backward flow or leakage of blood through a faulty aortic valve
  152. aortic stenosis
    narrowing of the aorta
  153. arrhythmia
    irregularity in the rhythm of the heartbeat
  154. arteriosclerosis
    hardening of an arteries
  155. arteritis
    inflammation of an artery or arteries
  156. asystole
    cardiac arrest
  157. atheroma
    a fatty deposit (plaque) in the wall of an artery
  158. atherosclerosis
    hardening of the arteries caused by the buildup of atheromas
  159. atrial fibrillation
    an irregular, usually rapid, heartbeat caused by overstimulation of the AV node
  160. atrioventricular block
    heart block; partial or complete blockage of the electrical impulses from the atrioventricular node to the ventricles
  161. bacterial endocarditis
    bacterial inflammation of the inner lining of the heart
  162. bradycardia
    heart rate of fewer than 60 beats per minute
  163. bruit
    sound or murmur, especially an abnormal heart sound heard on ausculatation, especially of the carotid artery
  164. cardiac arrest
    sudden stopping of the heart; also called asystole
  165. cardiac tamponade
    compression of the heart caused by fluid accumulation in the pericardial sac
  166. cardiomyopathy
    disease of the heart muscle
  167. claudication
    limping caused by inadequate blood supply during activity; usually subsides durning rest
  168. coarctation of the aorta
    abnormal narrowing of the aorta
  169. congenital heart disease
    heart disease (usually a type of malformation) that exists at birth
  170. congestive heart failure
    inability of the heart to pump enough blood out during the cardiac cycle; collection of fluid in the lungs results
  171. constriction
    compression or narrowing caused by contractions, as of a vessel
  172. coronary artery disease
    condition that reduces the flow of blood and nutrients through the arteries of the heart
  173. cyanosis
    bluish or purplish coloration, as of the skin, caused by inadequate oxygenation of the blood
  174. deep vein thrombosis
    formation of a thrombus (clot) in a deep veing, such as a femoral vein
  175. dysrhythmia
    abnormal heart rhythm
  176. embolus
    mass of foreign material blocking a vessel
  177. endocarditis
    inflammation of the endocardium, especially an inflammation caused by a bacterial (for example, staphylococci) or fungal agent
  178. essential hypertension
    high blood pressure without any known cause
  179. fibrillation
    random, chaotic, irregular heart rhythm
  180. flutter
    regular but very rapid heartbeat
  181. gallop
    triple sound of a heartbeat, usually indicative of serious heart disease
  182. heart block
    see atrioventricular block
  183. hemorrhoids
    varicose condition of veins in the anal region
  184. high blood pressure
    see hypertension
  185. hypertension
    chronic condition with blood pressure greater than 140/90
  186. hypertensive heart disease
    heart disease caused, or worsened, by high blood pressure
  187. hypotension
    chronic condition with blood pressure below normal
  188. infarct
    area of necrosis caused by a sudden drop in the supply of arterial or venous blood
  189. infarction
    sudden drop in the supply of arterial or venous blood, often due to an embolus or thrombus
  190. intermittent claudication
    attacks of limping, particularly in the legs, due to ischemia of the muscles
  191. intracardiac tumor
    a tumor within one of the heart chambers
  192. ischemia
    localized blood insufficiency caused by an obstuction
  193. low blood pressure
    see hypotension
  194. mitral insufficiency or reflux
    backward narrowing at the opening of the mital valve
  195. mitral stenosis
    abnormal narrowing at the opening of the mitral valve
  196. mitral valve prolapse
    backward flow of blood into the left atrium due to protrusion of one or both mitral cusps into the left atrium during contractions
  197. murmur
    soft heart humming sound heard between normal beats
  198. myocardial infarction
    sudden drop in the supply of blood to an area of the heart muscle, usually due to a blockage in a coronary artery
  199. myocarditis
    inflammation of the myocardium
  200. necrosis
    death of tissue or an organ or part due to irreversible damage; usually a result of oxygen deprivation
  201. occlusion
    the closing of a blood vessel
  202. palpitations
    uncomfortable pulsations of the heart felt as a thumping in the chest
  203. patent ductus arteriosus
    a condition at birth in which the ductus arteriosus, a small duct between the aorta and the pulmonary artery, remains abnormally open
  204. perfusion deficit
    lack of flow through a blood vessel, usually caused by an occlusion
  205. pericarditis
    inflammation of the pericardium
  206. peripheral vascular disease
    vascular disease in the lower extremities, usually due to blockages in the arteries of the groin or legs
  207. petechiae
    minute hemorrhages in the skin
  208. phlebitis
    inflammation of a vein
  209. plaque
    buildup of solid material, such as a fatty deposit, on the lining of an artery
  210. premature atrial contractions (PACs)
    atrial contractions that occur before the normal impulse; can be the cause of palpitations
  211. premature vetricular contractions (PVCs)
    ventricula contractions that occur before the normal impulse; can be the cause of palpitations
  212. pulmonary artery stenosis
    narrowing of the pulmonary artery, preventing the lungs from receiving enough blood from the heart to oxygenate
  213. pulmonary edema
    abnormal accumulation of fluid in the lungs
  214. Raynaud's phenomenon
    spasm in the arteries of the fingers causeing numbness or pain
  215. rheumatic heart disease
    heart valve and/or muscle damage caused by an untreated streptococcal infection
  216. risk factor
    any of various factors considered to increase the probability that a disease will occur; for example, high blood pressure and smoking are considered risk factors for heart disease
  217. rub
    frictional sound heard between heartbeats, usually indicating a pericardial murmur
  218. secondary hypertension
    hypertension having a known cause, such as kidney disease
  219. septal defect
    congenital abnormality consisting of an opening in the septum between the atria or ventricles
  220. stenosis
    narrowing, particularly of blood vessels or of the cardiac valves
  221. tachycardia
    heart rate greater than 100 beats per minute
  222. tetralogy of Fallot
    set of four congenital heart abnormalities appearing together that cause deoxygenated blood to enter the systemic circulation: ventricular septal defect, pulmonary stenosis, incorrect position of the aorta, and right ventricular hypertrophy
  223. thrombophlebitis
    inflammation of a vein with a thrombus
  224. thrombosis
    presence of a thrombus in a blood vessel
  225. thrombotic occlusion
    narrowing caused by a thrombus
  226. thrombus
    stationary blood clot in the cardiovascular system, usually formed from matter found in the blood
  227. tricuspid stenosis
    abnormal narrowing of the opening of the tricuspid valve
  228. vavulitis
    inflammation of a heart valve
  229. varicose vein
    dilated, enlarged, or twisted vein, usually on the leg
  230. vegetation
    clot on a heart valve or opening, usually caused by infection
  231. anastomosis
    surgical connection of two blood vessels to allow blood flow between them
  232. angioplasty
    opening of a blocked blood vessel, as by balloon dilation
  233. angioscopy
    viewing of the interior of a blood vessel using a fiberoptic catheter inserted or threaded into the vessel
  234. arteriotomy
    surgical incision into an artery, especially to remove a clot
  235. balloon catheter dilation
    insertion of a balloon catheter into a blood vessel to open the passage so blood can flow freely
  236. balloon valvuloplasty
    procedure that uses a balloon catheter to open narrowed orifices in cardiac valves
  237. bypass
    a structure (usually a vein graft) that creates a new passage for blood to flow from one artery to another artery or part of an artery; used to create a detour around blockages in arteries
  238. cardiopulmonary bypass
    procedure used during surgery to divert blood flow to and from the heart through a heart-lung machine and back into circulation
  239. coronary angioplasty
    see angioplasty
  240. coronary bypass surgery
    see bypass
  241. embolectomy
    surgical removal of an embolus
  242. endarterectomy
    surgical removal of the diseased portion of the lining of an artery
  243. endovascular surgery
    any of various procedures performed during cardiac catheterization, such as angioscopy and atherectomy
  244. Fontans operation
    surgical procedure that creates a bypass from the right atrium to the main pulmonary artery; Fontan's procedure
  245. graft
    any tissue or organ implanted to replace or mend damaged areas
  246. heart transplant
    implantation of the heart of a person who has just died into a person whose diseased heart cannot sustain life
  247. hemorrhoidectomy
    surgical removal of hemorrhoids
  248. intravascular stent
    stent placed within a blood vessel to allow blood to flow freely
  249. percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty
    see balloon catheter dilation
  250. phlebotomy
    drawing blood from a vein via a small incision
  251. stent
    surgically implanted device used to hold something (as a blood vessel) open
  252. thrombectomy
    surgical removal of a thrombus
  253. valve replacement
    surgical replacement of a coronary valve
  254. valvotomy
    incision into a cardiac valve to remove an obstruction
  255. valvuloplasty
    surgical reconstruction of a cardiac valve
  256. venipuncture
    small puncture into a veing, usually to draw blood or inject a solution