Quiz 4

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  1. Nutrition
    science of food composition and it's use by the body
  2. Commercial Diet
    • those bought commercially
    • comes prepared
  3. Commercial Diet Pros
    • regulated by Federal and State laws
    • FDA food, drug, and cosmetic Act
    • State Department of Agriculture regulates
    • balanced, pre-made, easy to aquire, long self-life, lots of choices
  4. Commercial Diet Cons
    • Little more unbalanced than prepared
    • Batch variablitiy (nutritive value varies between batches)
  5. Prepared Diet
    prepared physically and put together by self
  6. Prepared Diets Pros
    • much more balanced
    • more nutritive value
  7. Prepared Diet Cons
    • doesn't last long
    • cost and time factors
  8. Balanced Diet
    • 20% protein (red meat highest source)
    • 9% fat
    • 7% fiber
  9. Energy Sources
    • Carb
    • Fats - stored energy
    • Protein: complete - all animal protein (meat, fish, poultry, milk, eggs) that contain all essential amino acids; incomplete - vegetable proteins miss essential amino acids or don't have enough
  10. Essential Amino Acids
    • Arginine
    • Histidine
    • Isoleucine
    • Leucine
    • Theronine
    • Lysine
    • Methionine
    • Phenylalanine
    • Tryptophane
    • Valine
  11. Minerals
    • inorganic elements
    • utilized as structural components of tissue and cellular compounds
    • catalysts for enzyme activity
    • to maintain normal osmotic and electrochemical gradients that support neuromucular activity and cell membrane transport activity
    • body doesn't produce
    • taken in trace amounts
    • found in food, water, and air supply
  12. Common Minerals
    • Ca - bone development
    • I - growth and thyroid
    • P
    • Cl
    • Fe - blood transport oxygen
    • Se, Cr, Mg,
    • Na & K - water balance of the body
    • K - also blood clotting
    • Cu, Mn, Zn, F, Mo
  13. Vitamins
    • fat soluble - store in fat; becomes toxins; Vitamin D, A, K, and F
    • water soluble - can't overdose; gets flushed out; all others
    • amino group (C-O-H)
    • organic compounds; not a source of energy; slightly larger amounts than miners
  14. Fiber
    • class of compounds
    • nondigestible polysaccharides found in plant and cell walls; can't break down
  15. Forms of Diets
    • pellets - most common in lab
    • meal - ground up
    • semi-moist - ex. cat food in pouches
    • liquid
  16. Natural Diet
    naturally occuring diet
  17. Purified Diet
    • know every ingredient and how it's made
    • precise nutritional compostion
    • repeatable consistancy
    • easy to modify
  18. Chemically Defined Diet
    • simple basic diet
    • no further breakdown needed
  19. Special Diets
    • Sterile - put through an autoclave; food constructed to withstand high heat
    • Added Vitamins
    • Fiber Level - some different requirements for species livestock and larger animals
  20. Feed Storage
    • Temperature - prevent mold, spoiling, able to keepfor shelf life
    • Humitity - controlled (not worried about at home because the food is used quicker)
    • Vermin Proof - keep mice out
    • Closed Container - if an animal gets out they can't get into the food
    • Clean - food kept clean
    • Stacked - food is stackable
    • Rotate Stock - keep newer food to the back and move older food to the front to be used
  21. Water
    • Body is composed of 60-75% water
    • Needed for: digestion, metabolism (absorbtion of the nutrients), body temperature, and transport (most done via blood)
  22. Watering Devices
    • bowls
    • bottles and sipper tubes
    • automatic
    • RO (Reverse Osmosis)
  23. Bottles and Slipper Tube
    • size is dependent on the animal, cage, and weather forcast
    • bottles can be plastic or glass
    • glass - cheaper, easy to clean and disinfect, but break easily
    • plastic - more expensive, harder to clean, turn cloudy after washed too many times
  24. Automatic
    • used extensively
    • preferred way
    • outdoor can't freeze
    • chlorine flush periodically
  25. RO
    • Reverse Osmosis
    • High tech purification process
    • only used for high end labs/studies
    • expensive
    • not efficent 40-50% of water is recovered
  26. Water Quality
    • Must be potable (drinkable)
    • Treatments: physical - boil; chemical - Cl or Br; irradiate - water passes through UV stream
  27. Bedding Types
    • Softwood: pines/cedar - aromatic, dustier, need to be changed more frequently
    • Hardwood: oak/ash - no odor, no dust, lasts longer
    • Corn Cobs: shredded corn cobs - odorless, dust free, last longer, more expensive
    • Paper: recycled shredded paper - soft, odorless, dust, need to change frequently, cheap
    • Sawdust: used mostly for livestock, absorbant, odor, very dusty
    • Straw: large animals
  28. Good Bedding Qualities
    • dust-free
    • non-edible
    • no pathogens
    • no toxins
    • non-hygroscopic (doesn't attract water)
    • comfortable
  29. Analgesics
    • any drug that helps alieviate pain or block pain
    • aspirin
    • advil (ibuprofen), tylenol (acetaminophen)
    • Codeine, Morphine, Demerol (narcotics)
  30. NSAID
    Non-Sterioidal Anti Inflammatory Drug
  31. Anesthesia
    • loss of sensation without pain
    • pharmacologically induced
    • Reversible State of: amnesia, analgesia, loss of consciousness, loss of skeletal muscle reflexes, decreases stress response
  32. Reasons for Anesthesia
    • examination - radiograph or getting stressed out
    • restraint - grooming, suchering
    • manipulation - catheter
    • surgery
    • control seizures or convulsions
    • euthanasia - overdose
  33. 3 Basic Types of Anesthesia
    • Local - agent works in neurons in a limited, specific area
    • Regional - loss of pain sensation in certain regions of the body; Regional Blocks (epidural) & used to evaluate lameness in horses
    • General - drug-induced loss of consciousness during which patients are not arousable, even by painful stimulation (pain is the last stimulant to leave)
  34. Parenteral
    • most commonly/often used
    • IV, IM (IP)
    • SQ (primarily for locals)
  35. Parenteral Advantages
    simplicity of equiptment
  36. Parenteral Disadvantages
    • slower onset
    • difficult to control level of anestheic (regulate)
  37. 3 Essential Requirements with Inhalants
    • supply oxygen to lung alveolar membrane
    • remove carbon dioxide from lungs
    • supply anesthetic gas at a controlled partial pressure - must mantain alveolar ventiliation, inhalents depress respiratory center, artifical ventilation is necessary
  38. Inhalants Advantages
    • control depth of anestsia
    • recover more quickly
    • quick onset
  39. Inhalants Disadvantages
    • expensive
    • sophisticated equiptment
    • arrive as a liquid (machine converts to gas) $100/bottle and up
    • environmental pollution
    • some harmful to humans
  40. Other Anesthetics
    • oral
    • rectal
    • topical
    • hypothermia
    • hypnosis
  41. Criteria for Anesthesia
    • species
    • health status - want animal to be healthy, but can't always do that/what drugs are in the animal from before
    • type of procedure/purpose - reason
    • duration - how long animal needs to be under anesthesia
    • post-op fate - what happens to the animal when it's done
    • facilities - what is avaliable to use
    • legal - AWA boundaries
  42. Wildlife/Zoos Uses:
    • Jab stick, dart gun (blow gun)
    • drugs that are long lasting (hours)
    • reversible - so animals can fend for themselves when procedure is done
  43. Stage I
    • Onset
    • mostly conscious with normal vitals
    • Papperbrial - eyelid reflex stops
    • now lowering of the pain threshold
  44. Stage II
    • Excitement
    • Exaggereated Reflexes
    • Animals may struggle, bite, kick
    • need to progress through this rapidly to minimize effects
    • Muscle twitching, sphyncters relax
  45. Stage III
    • Surgical Depth
    • Four Planes
    • used toe reflex as determinant
  46. Stage III Plane 1
    • still has blink and swallow reflexes
    • regular respiration with good chest motion
    • light anesthetic
  47. Stage III Plane 2
    • BEST plane for surgery
    • normal respiration/chest movement
    • lost reflexes & pupil fixed to the center
  48. Stage III Plane 3
    • Deep anesthesia
    • Depressed heart rate and respiration rate
    • ventilation is used to breath for animal
    • used for large surgeries
    • people need to pay close attention to animal while in this stage
  49. Stage III Plane 4
    • DANGER!!
    • Death is creeping in!
    • Lungs working only from diaphragm
    • not a lot of time before stage 4
  50. Stage IV
    • Overdose
    • On death's door
  51. Monitoring Animals - Clinical Signs
    • Respiration (RR)
    • Circulation (HR)
    • Perfusion (CRT)
    • muscle relaxation
    • occular
  52. Monitoring Animals - Reflexes
    • Corneal - something coming at eye=blinking
    • Palpbral
    • Vibrissae - touch whiskers
    • Pinch (toe, tail, ear)
  53. Common Drugs
    • Phenothiazines (Acepromazine)* - sedative
    • Butorphanols (Torbugesic, Torbutrol) - potent anoglesic
    • Benzodiazepines (Diazepam/Valium) - muscle relaxant
    • Xylazine Hydrochloride (Xylazine/Rompun)* - little of all 3 listed before
    • Pentobarbital Sodium (Pentobarb; Nembutal; Mebumal) - control seizures
    • Ketamine Hydrochloride (Ketamine)* - no muscle relaxant
  54. Inhalants (Volatile Anesthetics)
    • Halothane, Methoxyflurane (2 most common)
    • Enflurane
    • Isoflurane
    • Sevoflurane
    • Desflurane
    • all inhalants require their own special vaporizor
  55. Dosing
    • Based on animal's body weight - almost always in g or kg's
    • Effects will vary - living breathing bio systems; metabolism is different; circulatory problems
    • Always better to underdose first
  56. 1 ounce = ? mL
    30 mL = 1 oz.
  57. 1 tablespoon = ? mL
    15 mL = 1 tbsp
  58. 1 kg = ? lbs
    2.2 lbs = 1 kg
  59. 1 teaspoon = ? mL
    5 mL = 1 tsp.

Card Set Information

Author:
rednecklover4410
ID:
74861
Filename:
Quiz 4
Updated:
2011-03-24 14:32:33
Tags:
Intro Animal Mgmt
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Information for the quiz 4 for intro to animal management
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