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chapter 14
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Chapter 14 Micro
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  1. Host
    Any organism that harbors anothers organism.
  2. Pathegen
    An organism capable of causing disease in hour.
  3. symbiosis
    An association between two (or more) species.
  4. parasitism
    one organism (parasite) benefits from the relationship
  5. mutualism
    both members of the association living together benefit from the relationship.
  6. Commensalism
    two species live together in a relationship such that one benefits the other neither benefits nor is harmed.
  7. Contamination
    Micro organisms are present.
  8. Infection
    pathogenic microorganisms penetrate the host defense
  9. Disease
    when an infection alters or changes the state of health from the normal state.
  10. Pathogenicity
    the capacity to produce disease.
  11. Virulence
    refers to the intensity of the diesease
  12. attenuation
    the weakening of the disease-producing ability of the pathogen.
  13. Resident Microflora
    comprise microbes that are always present on or in the human body.
  14. Transient Microflora
    Microbes that can be present under certain environmental conditions in any of the locations where resident microflora are found.
  15. Opportunistic pathogen
    Organisms that take advantage of particular opportunities to cause disease.
  16. Conditions that create opportunities for opportunistic organisms include
    • failure of the host's normal defenses.
    • Introduction of the organism into unusual body sites.
    • Disturbances in the normal microflora.
  17. Microbial antagonism
    Normal microflora competeing with pathogenic organisms and in some instances actively combating their growth.
  18. Infectious Disease
    caused by infectious agents such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa, and helminths.
  19. Noninfectious Disease.
    caused by any factor other than infectious organisms.
  20. Toxin
    In any substance that is poisonous to other organisms.
  21. Toxemia
    spreading of exotoxins by blood from the site of infection.
  22. Intoxication
    Diseases that result form the ingestion of a toxin.
  23. Exotoxin
    Soluble substances secreted into host tissues.
  24. Endotoxin
    part of the cell wall and are released into host tissues - sometimes in large quantities - from Gram-neg bacteria, ofeten when the bacteria die or divide.
  25. Symbiosis
    an association between two (or more) species. Living together encompasses a spectrum of relationships.
  26. Recognize examples of each type of symbiosis
    • Mutualism.
    • Parasitism.
    • Commensalism.
    • Antagonism.
  27. How do we become colonized with bacteria?
    • Passage thru birth canal.
    • contact with others.
    • contact with feeding material.
    • contact with instruments.
    • during nursing.
  28. location of Staphylococus epdiermidis
    • skin.
    • mouth.
    • Nasopharynx.
    • Intestines.
    • Urogenital.
  29. Location of Streptococcus mutans
    Mouth.
  30. Location of Streptococcus pneumoniae
    Nasopharynx
  31. Location of Neisseria meningitidis
    Nasopharynx
  32. Locaiton of Haemophilus influenzae
    NasoPharynx
  33. Location of Lactobacillus species
    • Intestines.
    • Urogenital.
  34. List Koch's Postulates
    • Agent must be observed in every case of a disease.
    • Isolate agent from a disease host and grow in pur culture.
    • Agent from pure culture must cause same disease when inoculated into healthy host.
    • Agent must be recoerd form the experimentally inoculated host and ID as being identical to the orginal microbe.
  35. Why are they koch's postulates used?
    to be satisfied in order to prove that a specific organsm is the caustice agent of a particular disease.
  36. How many classifications of diseases
    Ten.
  37. Inherited Diseases
    due to errors in genetic information (non-infectious cause)
  38. Congenital Disease
    are structural and functional defects present at birth (due to drugs, xray exposure)
  39. Degenerative Diseases
    are disorders that develop as aging occurs.
  40. Nutritional Deficiency Diseases
    lower resistance to infectious diseases and contribute to the severity of infections.
  41. Endocrine Diseases
    are due to excesses or dificiencies of hormones
  42. Mental Diseases
    Can be caused by a variety of factors (emotional, psychogenic or infection)
  43. Immunological Diseases
    such as allergies, autoimmune diseases, and immunodeficienceies
  44. Neoplastic Diseases
    involved abnormal cell growth that leads to benign or cancerous tumors.
  45. Iatrogenic Diseases
    • are caused by medical procedures and/or treatment.
    • Surgical errors.
    • nosocomial infections.
  46. Idiopathic Diseases
    are diseases whose cause is unknown.
  47. How are communicable diseases acquired?
    • transmitted from host to host directly or indirectly.
    • Direct contact.
    • some infections are more easily spread than others.
  48. How are Non-communicable diseases acquired?
    • diseases that are not spread from one host to another.
    • acquired from one's own flora (pneumonia).
    • acquired form a non-living environmental reservior (tetanus).
    • Malaria.
    • Food poisoning.
  49. What are virulence factors?
    structural or physiological characteristics that help organisms cause infection and disease.
  50. How do bacteria adhere to other cells?
    • critical point in production of disease.
    • adhesins are proteins found on attachment pili (fimbriae) and capsules.
    • Adhesins allow pathogen to bind to receptors on target cells.
  51. List three exoenzymes
    • Hyaluronidase.
    • Coagulase.
    • Streptokinase.
  52. What are the functions of Streptokinase.
    • dissolves blood clots.
    • expedites invasion into tissues.
  53. What are the functions of Coagulase
    • triggers blood plasma clotting.
    • allowing bacteria protection form immune defenses.
    • (Staphylococcus aureus)
  54. What are the functions of Hyaluronidase?
    enzyme digests hyaluronic acid, a glue-like substance that helps hold the cells of certain tissues together. (streptococcus pyogenes)
  55. List the classic stages of infection.
    • 1. Incubation period.
    • 2. Prodromal phase.
    • 3. Invasive.
    • 4. Decline.
    • 5. Convalescence.
  56. What happens to Incubation Period?
    • Microbes don't instantly produce symptoms when they enter the body.
    • There is a lag between infection and symptoms.
    • How Long depends on the organism, the host's response, the infectous dose by what route the organisms entered the body.
  57. What happens in the Prodromal Phase?
    Patients feels well (may have mild symptoms) but may be infectious.
  58. What happens in Invasive stage?
    • Patient experiences typical signs and systems.
    • Organism is multiplying becomes well established.
  59. What happens in Decline Stage?
    Symptoms begin to subside.
  60. What happens in Convalescence Stage?
    patient begins to heal may still be infectious to others.

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