Biology Exam

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Biology Exam
2011-03-24 01:31:24
bio exam

chpt 9,11,13,16,
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  1. What is Ricin?
    a highly toxic protein
  2. Genes
    Part of DNA base sequence; SPecifies the RNA or protein product.
  3. RNA
    • main component of ribisomes
    • structures upon which polypeptide chains are built
  4. tRNA
    delivers amino acids to ribosomes one by one in th eorder specified for a mRNA
  5. translation
    protein building information in an mRNA is decoded into a sequence of amino acids.
  6. Promoter
    in DNA a sequenceto which RNA polymerase binds.
  7. Genetic Code
    complete set of sixty four mRNA codons.
  8. Mutation
    permanent changes in the sequence of a cells DNA
  9. deletion
    mutation inw hich one or more base pairs are lost
  10. Insertion
    mutation in which one or more base pairs become inserted into DNA
  11. trasnposable elements
    segments of DNA that can move spontaneously within or between chromosomes.
  12. Q. A choromosome contains many different gene regions that are transcribed into different _____?
  13. Q. A binding site for RNA polymerase is called a ____?
  14. Q. Energy that drives transciption is provided mainly by____?
  15. Q. A RNA molecule is typically _____; a DNA molecule is typically _____?
  16. RNAs form by _____: proteins form by___?
  17. Q. most codons specify a(n) _____?
  18. Q. Anticodons pair with ____.
  19. What is teh maximum length of a polypeptide encoded by a mRNA that is 45 nucleotides long?
  20. ______are removed from the new mRNA transcipts.
  21. Where does transcription take place in a typical eukaryotic cell?
  22. Each amino acid is specified by a set of ____ bases in an mRNA transcript.
  23. Q. ___ different codons constitute the genetic code.
  24. ____ can cause mutations.
  25. cell cycle
    a series of events from the time a cell forms until its cytoplasm divides
  26. interphase
    in a eukaryotic cell cycle the interval between miotic division when a cell grows, roughly doubles the number of its cytoplasmic components and replicates its DNA
  27. mitosis
    is a nuclear division mechanism that maintains the chromosome number.
  28. HOmologous chromosomes
    chomosomes with teh same length shape and set of genes.
  29. spindle
    a dynamic network of microtubules that moves chromosomes during nuclear division
  30. Anaphase
    microtubules of the spindle separate the sister chromatids of each duplicated chromosomes, and move them toward opposite spindle poles.
  31. cleavage furrow
    in a dividing animal cell the indentation where cytoplasmic division will occur
  32. oncongene
    gene that has teh potential to transform a normal cell into a tumor
  33. cancer
    disease that occurs when a neoplasm physically and metabolically disrupts body tissues
  34. metastasis
    the process in which cancer cells spread from one part of the body to another.
  35. Q. Mitosis and cytoplasmic division function to _________?
  36. Q. A duplicated chromosome has _____ chromatids(s)
  37. Except for a pairing of sex chromosomes, homologous chromosomes _____?
  38. Most cells spend the majority of their lives in ____?
  39. The Chromosomes align at the midpoint of the spindle during ____?
  40. The spindle attaches to chromosomes at the____?
  41. Only ____ is not a stage of mitosis?
  42. Interphase is the part of the cell cycle when ______?
  43. After mitosis the chromosome number of a descendant cell is ___ the parents cell.
  44. name any check point gene
  45. which following encompasses the other two?
  46. dominant
    refers to an allel that masks the effect of a recessive allele paired with it.
  47. genotype
    the particular set of alleles carried by an individual
  48. heterosygous
    having two different alleles of a gene
  49. homozygous
    having identical alleles of a gene
  50. hybrid
    the ofspring of a cross between two individuals that breed true for different forms of a trait. a heterosygous individual
  51. locus
    location of a gene on a chromosome
  52. phenotype
    an individuals observable traits
  53. recessive
    refers to an allel with an effect that is maksed by a dominant allel on the homologous chromosome
  54. monohybrid cross
    breeding experiment in which individuals identically heterozygous for one gene or crossed. the frequency of traits among the offspring offers information about the dominance relationship between the alleles
  55. punnett square
    diagram used to predict the genetic and phenotypic outcome of a crossq
  56. testcross
    method of determining genotype in which an individual of unknown gentotype is crossed with one that is known to be homozygous recessive
  57. dyhybrid cross
    breeding experiment in which individuals identically heterozygous for two genes are crossed. the frequency of traits among teh offspring offers information about the dominance relationships between the paired alleles.
  58. condominant
    refers to two alleles that are both fullly expressed in heterozygous individuals
  59. epistasis
    effect in which a trait is influenced by the products of multiple genes.
  60. incomplete dominance
    condition in which one allele is not fullly dominant over another, so the heterozygous phenotype is betweeen the two homozygous phenotypes
  61. multiple allele system
    gene for which three or more alleles persist in a population
  62. continuous variation
    in a population a range of small differences in a shared trait.
  63. bell curve
    bell shaped curve typicallly results from graphing frequency versus distribution for a trait that varies continuously.
  64. biogeography
    study of patterns in the geographic distibution of species and communities
  65. naturalist
    person who observes life from a scientific perspective
  66. evolution
    change in a line of descent
  67. lineage
    line of descent
  68. theory of uniformity
    idea that gradual repetitive processes occuring over long time spans shaped earths surface.
  69. artifical selection
    selective breeding of animals by humans
  70. adaptation
    a heritable trait that enhances an individuals fitness
  71. natural selection
    a process in which environemental pressure result in the differential survival and reproduction of individuals of a population who vary in the details of shared haritable traits.
  72. fitness
    degree of adaptation to an environment as measure by an individuals relative genetic contrinution to future generations.
  73. radiometric dating
    a method that can reveal the age of a material by measureing its content of a radiosotope and daughter elements.