Anatomy Chapter 23

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LaizyDaizy79
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74909
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Anatomy Chapter 23
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2011-04-11 22:57:47
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Human Anatomy
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  1. What are structures that detect stimuli?
    receptors
  2. What type of receptors is relatively simple in structure and distributed throughout the skin and organs?
    general receptors
  3. What type of receptor is complex in structure and located in the head?
    special sense receptors
  4. Based on the origin of the stimulus, what type of receptor detects stimuli from the external environment?
    exteroceptors
  5. Based on the origin of the stimulus, what type of receptor detects stimuli from the internal environment?
    interoceptors
  6. Based on the origin of the stimulus, what type of receptor responds to stimuli dealing with the position of the body?
    proprioceptors
  7. What type of receptor is found in the body wall?
    somatic sensory receptors
  8. What type of receptor is found in the viscera?
    visceral sensory recptors
  9. Based on the modality of ths timulus, what type of receptor detects specific molecules?
    chemoreceptors
  10. Based on the modality of the stimulus, what type of receptor responds to changes in temperature?
    thermoreceptors
  11. Based on the modality of the stimulus, what type of receptor responds to light?
    photoreceptors
  12. Based on the modality of the stimulus, what type of receptor responds to touch, pressure, vibration, or stretch?
    mechanoreceptors
  13. Based on the modality of the stimulus, what type of receptor responds to changes in pressure within the body?
    baroreceptors
  14. Based on the modality of the stimulus, what type of receptor responds to pain?
    nociceptors
  15. What type of pain involves the perception of pain in an amputated or excised part of the body?
    phantom pain
  16. What type of pain occurs when impulses from certain viscera are perceived as originating not within the organ, but in the dermatomes of the skin?
    referred pain
  17. What is the probable cause of referred pain?
    common neural pathways
  18. What is gustation?
    taste
  19. What are gustatory receptors?
    aste buds
  20. What is the sense of smell?
    olfaction
  21. What cranial nerve carries impulses from olfactory receptors?
    I - olfactory nerve
  22. Whay layer of specialized stratified squamous epithelium forms a continuous lining of both the external, anterior surface of the eye and the internal surface of the eyelid?
    conjunctiva
  23. What are the slightly curved rows of thick, short hairs at the superior edges of the orbits along the orbital ridges?
    eyebrows
  24. What is the function of eyebrows?
    • facial expression
    • keep sweat from dripping in the open eye
  25. What structures extend from the margins of the eyelids and prevent large foreign objects from coming into contact with the anterior surface of the eye?
    eyelashes
  26. What are the movable anterior protective coverings over the surface of the eyes?
    eyelids
  27. What is the fibrous core of the eyelids?
    tarsal plate
  28. What are the sebaceous glands within the eyelids?
    tarsal glands
  29. What are the small, redidish bodies at the medial commissure of each eye?
    lacrimal caruncle
  30. What glands lie within the lacrimal caruncle?
    ciliary glands
  31. What structures produce tears?
    lacrimal glands
  32. What openings drain tears from the eye into the nose?
    lacrimal puncta
  33. What structure drains tears from the lacrimal puncta?
    lacrimal canaliculus
  34. What structure collects tears and sits in the lacrimal fossa of the lacrimal bones?
    lacrimal sac
  35. What structure drains tears into the nose?
    nasolacrimal duct
  36. What is the external layer of the eyeball?
    fibrous tunic
  37. What is the avascular, transparent, anterior portion of the fibrous tunic of the eye?
    cornea
  38. What is the white of the eye?
    sclera
  39. What is the middle layer of the eye wall?
    vascular tunic
  40. What region of the vascular tunic is posterior and is the most extensive and houses a vast network of capillaries to supply the retina?
    choroid
  41. What portion of the vascular tunic of the eye is a muscular ring that works to focus images on the retina?
    ciliary body
  42. What portion of the vascular tunic of the eye is the most anterior and is what we commonly refer to when we speak of the color of the eye?
    iris
  43. What is the opening within the iris?
    pupil
  44. What layer of the eye contains photoreceptors?
    neural tunic or retina
  45. What posterior portion of the eye do neurons extend through and form a round structure frequently referred to as the blind spot?
    optic disc
  46. What rounded, yellowish region has a concentration of cones and lies lateral to the optic disc?
    macula lutea
  47. What is the area of sharpest vision on the retina?
    fovea centralis
  48. What is the strong, deformable, transparent structure of the eye that focuses images on the retina?
    lens
  49. What dense, elastic structure bounds the lens of the eye?
    lens capsule
  50. What structures attach to the lens capsule at its periphery where they transmit tension to change the shape of the lens?
    suspensory ligaments
  51. What structure of the eye changes the shape of the lens?
    ciliary muscle
  52. The lens divides the interior of the eye into two spaces. What are these?
    anterior & posterior cavities
  53. The iris divides the anterior cavity of the eye into two spaces. What are they?
    anterior & posterior chambers
  54. What fluid fills lies between the lens and the cornea of the eye?
    aqueous humor
  55. What structure forms aqueous humor?
    epithelium of the ciliary body
  56. What structure reabsorbs aqueous humor?
    scleral venous sinus
  57. What gelatinous matter fills the posterior cavity of the eye?
    vitreous humor
  58. What cranial nerve carries impulses from the retina to the brain?
    II - optic nerve
  59. The optic nerves converge anterior to the pituitary gland to form what structure?
    optic chiasma
  60. What are the three anatomic regions of the ear?
    external, middle & inner
  61. What is the skin-covered, elastic cartilage supported projecting portion of the external ear?
    auricle or pinna
  62. What is the structure made of soft tissue and cartilage lining the external auditory meatus?
    external auditory canal
  63. What is the delicate, funnel-shaped epithelial sheet that is the partition between the external and middle ear?
    tympanic membrane
  64. What glands lie within the external auditory canal?
    ceruminous glands
  65. What space lies within the middle ear?
    tympanic cavity
  66. What stricutre communicates the middle ear cavity with the atmosphere and thus allow the pressure of the middle ear cavity to equal that of the atmosphere and the outer ear?
    auditory tube
  67. The auditory tube connects the middle ear cavity with what other anatomical structure?
    nasopharynx
  68. Collectively, what are the three small bones of the middle ear called?
    auditory ossicles
  69. What small bone is attached to the deep surface of the tympanic membrane?
    malleus
  70. Which of the three ear ossicles lies between the other two?
    incus
  71. What small bone is attached to the oval window?
    stapes
  72. What are the bony spaces or cavities of the inner ear?
    bony labyrinth
  73. What are the fluid-filled tubes of the inner ear?
    membranous labyrinth
  74. What portion of the inner ear lies between the cochlea and the semicircular canals?
    vestibule
  75. What are the three half-circle-shaped structures of the inner ear?
    semicircular canals
  76. What is the snail-shaped portion of the inner ear?
    cochlea
  77. What cranial nerve transmits impulses from the inner ear to the brain?
    VIII - vestibulocochlear nerve

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