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condition place preference paradigm
- rats repeateldy receive a drug in one compartment. then during test phase the rug free rats is placed in the box
- time spent in drug givin compartment is measured
- rats and primates press lever to inject drug
- learn to self administer durg
- show mimic actions of human addiction
Mesotelencephalic dopmaine system
a system of dopaminergic neurons that projects from the midbrain into various regions of the brain
- axons of the dopaminergic neurons that have their cell bodies in the substantia nigra project to the dorsal stratium
- degeneration of this pathway cuases parkinsons disease
- controls movement
- axons of the dopaminergic neurons that have their cell bodies in the ventral tegmental area and projects to various corical and limbic sites
- implicated in the rewarding effects of brain stimulation
- area where scizophrenia is present
Haloperidol is used to treat psychotic disorders (conditions that cause difficulty telling the difference between things or ideas that are real and things or ideas that are not real). Haloperidol is also used to control motor tics (uncontrollable need to repeat certain body movements) and verbal tics (uncontrollable need to repeat sounds or words) in adults and children who have Tourette's disorder (condition characterized by motor or verbal tics). Haloperidol is also used to treat severe behavioral problems such as explosive, aggressive behavior or hyperactivity in children who cannot be treated with psychotherapy or with other medications. Haloperidol is in a group of medications called conventional antipsychotics. It works by decreasing abnormal excitement in the brain.
is a drug which is a butyrophenone derivative. It acts on subsets of both 5-HT receptors and dopamine receptors, and is used to treat schizophrenia.
- is a neurotoxin used by scientists to selectively kill dopaminergic and noradrenergic neurons
- The main use for oxidopamine in scientific research is to induce Parkinsonism in laboratory animals such as mice, rats and monkeys, in order to develop and test new medicines for treating Parkinson's disease
positive incentive theories
- They hold that the primary factor in most cases of addiction is the craving for the positive incentive (pleasure) of the drug
- mostly for eating and drinking
theoreis holding that the main factor that motivats drug addicts to keep taking rugs is the prevention or temination of withdrawel symptomes
- theory that addictions develop when drug use sensitizes the neural cicuits mediating wanting of the drug...
- not necessarily liking for the drug
tolerence resulting from a reduction in the reactivity of the nervous system or other sites of action ot a drug
Tolerance that results from a reduction in the amount of a drug getting to its sites of action
tolerence effects that are maximally expressed only when a drug is administered in the situation in which it has previously been adminstered
before you take drug you want and crave it as much as it is good...however after a while the want increases but the pleasure decreases