Ch. 7-10

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Ch. 7-10
2011-03-24 02:32:56

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  1. typology
    the systematic arrangement of material culture into types
  2. space-time systematics
    The delineation of patterns in material culture throgh time and over space. These patterns are what the archaeologist will eventually try to explain or account for.
  3. type
    a class or archaeological artifacts defined by a consistent clustering of attributes
  4. morphological type
    a descriptive and abstract group of individual artifacts whose focus is on overall similarity rather than function or chronological significance
  5. temporal type
    a morphological type that has temporal significance; also known as a time-marker or index fossil
  6. functional type
    a class of artifacts that performed the same function; these may or may not be temporal and/or morphological types
  7. attribute
    an individual characteristic that distinguishes one artifact from another on the basis of its size, surface texture, form, material, method of manufacture, or design pattern
  8. Mousterian
    a culture from the Middle Paleolithic ("Middle Old Stone Age") period that appeared throughout Europe after 250,000 and before 30,000 years ago. Mousterian artifacts are frequently associated with Neanderthal human remains.
  9. period
    a length of time distinguished by particular items of material culture, such as house form, pottery, or subsistence
  10. phase
    an archaeological construct possessing traits sufficiently characteristic to distinguish it from other units similarly conceived; spatially limited to roughly a locality or region and chronologically limited to the briefest interval of time possible
  11. assemblage
    a collection of artifacts of one or several classes of materials (stone tools, ceramics, bones) that comes from a defined context, such as a site, feature, or stratum
  12. component
    an archaeological construct consisting of a stratum or set of strata that are presumed to be culturally homogenous. A set of components from various sites in a region will make up a phase
  13. principle of uniformitarianism
    the principle asserting that the processes now operating to modify the earth's surface are the same processes that operated long ago in the geological past
  14. faunal
    animal bones in archaeological sites
  15. analogy
    noting similarities between the two entities and inferring from that similarity that an additional attribute of one (the ethnographic case) is also true of the other (the archaeological case)
  16. kiva
    a Pueblo ceremonial structure that is usually round (but may be square or rectangular) and semi-subterranian. They appear in early Pueblo sites and perhaps even in the earlier (pre-AD 700) pithouse villages.
  17. sipapu
    a Hopi word that loosely translates as "place of emergence." The original sipapu is the place where the Hopi are said to have emerged into this world from the underworld. Sipapus are also small pits in kivas through which communication with the supernatural world takes place.
  18. formal analogies
    analogies justified by similarities in the formal attributes of archaeological and ethnographic objects and features
  19. relational analogies
    analogies justified on the basis of close cultural continuity between the archaeological and ethnographic cases or similarity in general cultureal form
  20. taphonomy
    the study of how organisms become part of the fossil record; it primarily refers to the study of how natural processes produce patterning in archaeological data
  21. bonebed
    archaeological and paleontological sites consisting of the remains of a large number of animals, often of the same species, and often representing a single moment in time - a mass kill or mass death
  22. experimental archaeology
    exeriments designed to determine the archaeological correlates of ancient behavior; may overlap with both ethnoarchaeology and taphonomy