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Demographics of Freedom
-1820 *233,504 free Af.Amer., 99,281 N, 114,070 Up S., 20,155 Dep. S. 2.4 % of US pop. 3% of S pop.
1860- free AfAmer. ^ 488, 070. 226,152 N, 224,963 Up S. 36,955 Dep S.
- -1860 47.3 % free B. lived in cities
- -largest black urban pop. in North is in Philly
- -largest free populations (Maryland, Virginia, N.Carolina, & Lousiana)
- -smallest free pop. ( Arkansas, Mississippi, Missouri, Florida, Alabama)
- -laws in Ohio that required any African American entering the state to produce legal evidence that they were free, register w/ county clerk & post a $500 bond (to pay for their support in a case of want"
- -prohibited black testimony against whites, black service on juries, & black enlistment in miltia.
The coplan family were one of the few African-American families in antebellum America affulent enough to commission such a portrait.
Free-Soil Party (1848-1853)
- An almost entirely northern political coalition opposed to the explansion of slavery into western territories.
- -included former supporters of the Whig, Democratic, and Liberty Policies
the term first came about in 1842 in Massachusetts, to refer to the special cars on trails that were set aside for african-american passengers.
Black Voter Disfrancised
some states did not allow any blacks the right to vote (NJ), while others only allowed black males the right to wote. 1818 CT only allowed previous black men who had that right to keep it, but new black males could not gain that right. NY didn't deny right, but raised the property value requirement, and eliminated the requirement for whites.
Black Communities in Urban North
-lived in both rural and urban areas.
Black Family in the North
-avg. black family had 2 parents, 2-4 children.
-increase in single parent households-mother.
*why? high mortality rate of B.men, jobs hard 2 find
-took in boarders & create extended families
- -1st black female public speaker in us
- -sometimes angered both black and white people in her speeches.
- -"The Miseries We Tasted" criticized the treatment of black female workers in the north.
Elizabeth Taylor Greenfield
- -a.k.a "Black Swan"
- - renowned vocalist of the antebellim america; broad vocal range
- debut in 1853, Metropoltian Hall, NYC before an white audience.
- -born a slave in Mississippi, raised by quackers
France Ellen Watkins Harper
- -born free in Baltimore
- -1850's published antislavery poetry
- *suffering of slaves
- -traveled across North as an antislavery speaker.
- -Fiction author
- -Poems on Various Subjects
Black Churches of the Antebellum America
- -church buildings were community centers
- -used them for schools, antislavery society meetings, harbored fugitive slaves.
- -spoke about weaknesses of African Americans
- -White churches had special sections, sunday school & communion for blacks.
Stephen Smith and William Whipper
-smith was born unfree, while Whipper was born free.
-Smith purchased own freedom, began own lumber co., then began purchasing reestate.
- -Whipper opened owm grocery store.
- -became partners in 1835
- -own lumber & coal co., 22 railroad cars, & $27,000 bank stock
- -Smith richest AAmer. in antebellum amer.
- -did a lot of reforming and a lot towards antislavery efforts.
- -segragated in the N.
- -AAmer. leaders and black abolistionists established private black schools for black children.
- -when it became apart of the public school system in 1834, funding/attendance declined.
- -poor funding=poor ed. for most black children in the north .
The Constitution of the Pittsburgh African Education Society
- -1832, an society and school establised for blacks
- -established by John.B Vashon
Free African Americans in Upper South
- -lived alongside slaves
- -share close ties with the free blacks of the north
- -more at risk of becoming enslaved
- -free blacks had to carry free papers
- -debt could put them in risk of being enslaved
- -had trouble of traveling owning firearms, being out after dark
Free blacks in deep South
- -had a lot of blacks mixed with whites
- -tended to stick close to their previous white masters.
- -black churches were rare
- -wealthy black men organized private schools for black children.
Mother Mary Elizabeth Clovis Lange
- -born in Haiti
- -established the Oblate Sisters of Providence (order of Roman Catholic nuns) provided free education to the children of french speaking black refugees from the haiti revolution.
- -operated a school for the children of the refugees.
Free blacks in the far west
- -free blacks were rare
- -black laws(reason for the small popluation of free blacks)
- -helped settle Oregon
- -California gold rush attrached black men
Primary Characters of Beloved
- -Seth-runaway slave with children
- Paul D
- Baby Suggs
4 Basic Levels of literary analyses
Three attempts to resolve main conflict
- -Ignore the ghost
- -force it away by brute force
- -embrace it