Bio Chp 15

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Bio Chp 15
2011-03-30 20:13:50
Biotechnology Biology

Chapter 15 of the biology textbook that talks about biotechnology
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  1. Biotechnology
    Using technology to control biological processes as means of meeting societal needs

    Includes a wide range of procedures for modifying living organisms according to human purpose

    (examples: domestication of animals, cultivation of plants)
  2. Topics of biotechnology
    • Transgenic biotechnology
    • reproductive cloning
    • forensic biotechnology
    • stem cells
  3. Transgenic Organism
    Organism whose genome has stably incorporated one or more genes from another organism

    • EXAMPLE: "golden rice"
    • different from regular rice not only in color but in dietary means. contains beta-keratin whichs helps with Vitamin A
  4. Human Growth Hormone
    • HGH normally secreted by pituary gland
    • abnormal growth as a result of faulty gland

    • BEFORE: extracted HGH from dead people
    • NOW: made in transgenic bacteria with human HGH gene incorporated
  5. Restriction Enzymes
    • Recognize a particular DNA sequence and cut whereever they encounter it.
    • -Each enzyme has its own recognition sequence
    • -derived from bacteria
  6. Sticky ends
    • Resulting from DNA fragments that have protruding ends
    • -allows complentary strand to "stick" to the DNA
  7. Using Bacteria to Produce a Human Protein
  8. Uses for transgenic biotechnology
    Production of medicines and vaccines

    Examples: human insulin & cancer-fighting compounds

    Variety of transgenic organisms (not just bacteria. example: goats milk)
  9. Genetically Modified (GM) Food Crops
    • planted in abunce in the US
    • -mostly soybean, cotton and corn

    • Main Reasons:
    • insect resistance
    • herbicide resistance
    • Disease resistant
    • Cold tolerant
    • Drought/sallinity tolerant
    • more nutrious
    • pharmaceutical-producing
    • phtoremediators

    EXAMPLE: transgenic corn contains gene from the bacteria Bacillus Thuringiensis which incodes for a toxin that kills insect pests
  10. Contorversy over transgenes
    • Unintended harm to other organisms
    • (ex: monach butterflies)

    Reducing pesticide effectiveness

    • Gene transfer to non-target species
    • (ex: weeds)

    Risk of creating new allergen

    Unkown effects of human health

    Patenting issues

    Encourages use of pollutants on field crops
  11. Clone
    • a genetically identical copy of a biological entity
    • -Genes, cells, organisms
  12. Reproductive cloning
    intended to produce adult mammals of a defined genotype

    • EXAMPLE:
    • Dolly the sheep; was an exact genetic replica of another sheep
  13. Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer (SCNT)
    Cloning mammals by fusing a somatic ('non-sex') cell with an "enucleated" egg cell
  14. Enucleated
    Nucleus removed

    Take nucleus from a body cell and put it into an egg cell whose genetic material has been removed.
  15. SCNT
  16. Human Clones
    • No known human cloning has taken place
    • scientiest have done SCNT to produce a human embryo for stem cell research purposes

    • What would a human clone look like?
    • A genetic replica: same DNA sequence
    • Similar to identical twins
    • -only with an age difference
  17. Forensic Biotechnology
    • DNA can be used to identify ...
    • -identities of criminals, biological fathers, disaster victims

    • Before:
    • Thumbprints were main way to identify people

    • Now:
    • only need a tiny speck of body tissue
  18. Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)
    • a technique for quickly producing many copies of a DNA segment.
    • -"DNA Amplification"

    • Requires:
    • DNA sample, collection of nucleotides, DNA polymerase, primers
  19. PCR
  20. Finding Individual Patterns
    Human Genomes have lots of short DNA sequences that are repeated from 3-50 times

    STR: short tandem repeat

    • EXAMPLE:
    • TCAT

    • Different people have different # of repeats
    • -Person 1: TCAT TCAT TCAT

    **Very unlikely that 2 unrelated people will have same number of repeats even at one location in the genome**
  21. What do Forensic scientist look for when looking for patterns?
    look at STR's at 13 different locations
  22. Stem Cell research
    • Most body cells have undergone commitment
    • -cell's role is completely determined
  23. Embryonic Stem Cells
    • Cells in early embryo that have yet to have undfergone commitment
    • -can give rise to various cell types
    • -relatively small number of cells with similar capability in adult body
    • -both are considered stem cells
  24. What can stem cells do?
    • Produce more cells of their own type
    • and produce at least one time of specialized
  25. Embryonic Stem Cells
    • embryonic blastocyst
    • -a source of stem cells
  26. Inner cell mass
    embryonic stem cells (ESCs) that can give rise to all of the different cell types in the human body
  27. Adult Stem Cells
    • found in small numbers in various body tissues
    • different from ESCs because not as flexible, normally found in body tissue
  28. Controversy over ESCs
    • Researchers originally had to destroy the embryos the cells are part of...
    • -can be viewed as destruction of human life
    • Bush limited the funding of research for embryo research
    • --funding increased by private sources.
  29. Induced pluripotent stem cells
    • can make ESCs without the need to use embryos
    • derived from ordinary cells of children or adults
    • --insert 4 genes into cells to induce stem cells
  30. Therapeutic Cloning
    cells derived from ESCs and then introduced into a human body may set off immune system and attack

    -can be avoided if individuals produce their own stem cells

  31. Process of therapeutic cloning
    a standard cell from an adult body used as the donor-DNA cell in the SCNT cloning process

    result allows embryo to divide to the blastocyst stage.

    then can be used to help repair body of the individual who provide the donor-DNA cell