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19th Century Influences on Sexuality
Dr. Sylvester Graham thoughts on sex and sexuality:
He suggested that sex caused to much stress for man's nervous system.
He also suggested that health problems can be caused by marital excess.
1 oz of semen is equal to 40 oz of blood.
He also recomanded that males ejaculate no more than 12 times a year.
He founded health spa battle creek
He also believed in healthy diet
John was obsessed with bowel movement and health
Developed list to ID masterbators
Dr. William Acton:
He believed that woman had little sexual feeling or interest
He also suggested that woman should avoid spasmodic convulsions during sex
Dr . Acton also suggested radical treatment for spermatorrhea which was a syringe that was put in man's penis filled with hot water
What is spermatorrhea?
It is a disorder of excessive involuntary ejaculation.
What is Jugum penis?
This is a device that is used to stop young male from touching themselves.(1880-1920)
Richard von Krafft-Ebing:
He was a german born psychiatrist and a person who contributed the most significant medical writes on sexology in the late 19th century.
His interest was deviant sexual behavior and he believed that deviant sexual behavior was the result of engaging in non-reproductive sexual practices.( he published the first book to examine atypical sexual behavior: sadism, masochism,fetishism)
He also blamed masturbation for all sexual ills
He was a big name on psychology( Austrian psychiatrist)
He legitimized sexuality research
He had a tought on mature( only way female can orgasm is with penis penetration) vs. immature orgasm
Henry Havelock Ellis:
He suggested that masturbation is a common practice
He also suggested that sexual orientation existed in degrees
He said that woman's libido is strong as men's
He performed studies on psychology of sex and he was objective and non.judjemental
He is the most influential sex researcher of the 20th century.
He talked about masterbation in his book.
For his research he developed an interview method but there was a problem with his sample that it could not be generalized since the sample was western and educated
Sex in America:
There was a need for current data on teen sexual behavior
They were interested to look into social and behavior aspect of fertility related behavior.
This book was a most recent book discussing sexual matters.
Who has the highest rate in teen pregnancy?
US follwowed by UK and Canada. The lowest rates are France , Sweden and Holland has the lowest rate.
What did Masters and Johnson look into?
They were the first modern scientist to observe and measure the act of sexual intercourse in the lab. The first study they published was called the human sexual response.
Female and Male Reproductive Anatomy
What are the parts participating in formation of the ovaries in females?
Hypothalamus: triggers development
FSH: Follicate stimuating hormone
LH: Lutinizing hormone
Ovaries: Produces estrogen and progestrone
What are some factors that has reduced the age in which females reach pubirty:
What are gonads?
gonads are sex organs
testies in male and ovaries in female
What is a factor that determines menstruation in females?
Body fat content
What causes the secondary sex characteristics to appear?
What are some secondary sex characteristics for femals?
Pubic and underarm hair
Skin break out
Various types of Hymens include:
What are females external sex organs?
Vulva or pudendum ( term used to refer to femal external sex organ)
Labia Majora ( outer lips)
Labia Minora( inner lips)
What are female internal sex organs:
Is made of the Mons Pubis, Labia Majora and Minora, The Vestibule, the Perineum and the Clit. Vagina is the internal sex organ.
Two longitudinal folds of fatty tissues that extend from the mons.
Frames the rest of the female genitalia and meet at the perineum.
Outer skin is pigmented and covered with hair.
Inner surface is hairless and contains sebaceous glands.
During sexual intercourse Labia majora fills with blood and engorge.
This structure is homolouge to the male scortum.
Smaller pink folds
Situated between Labia majora and the vestibule.
The folds are more delicate, shorter and thinner than the labia minora.
They also form the hood over the clit and are rich in sebaceous glands.
This structure contains some erectile tissue and serve to protect vagina and urethra.
During arousal labia minora will darken.
This structure is an erectile tissue located under the prepuce and the labia.
Is the name for the entire region between the labia minora.
The opening to the urethra. Urethra is shorter in women compared to men.
The thin fold of vascularized mucous membrane at the vaginal opening.
These glands were believed to produce lubrication however this is not true. the ducts of this gland empty into the vestibule in the middle of labia minora.
How is the lubrication produced?
The lubrication is produced by sweating of the mucosal lining.
The primary organ of the sexual intercourse
Way for the exit of the menstrual flow
Enterence of the sperm
Serves as the birth canal
The acidic pH of the vagina keeps bacteria under control
Vagina extends from cervix of the uterus to the external genitalia.
First third of the vagina contains lots of nerve endings and is highly vascularized.
What is the purpose of the hood of clitoris?
It buffers direct contact
Helps reducing friction in sexual contact
It is a spot about a size of a dime in the lower third of the front part of the vagina.
Sensetive to stimulation
It has been argued that G.spot is similar to prostate.
Thick walled hollow muscular organ between the bladder and the rectum
It is the shape of an inverted pear
Changes in the uterus cause menstruation and it nourishes and protect the fetus.
Provides contraction for expulsion
the wall is one inch thick and is made of three layers( perometrium,myometrium and endometrium )
The lower portion of the uterus
What layer of the uterus falls every month?
Extend laterally from the sides of the uterus
Infundibulum are the pet shaped ends
At the end are finger projections that curl around the ovary which are called fimbrae.
Is the structure that produces the ova and secretes hormones.
What are the functions of the PC muscles?
They make child birth easier
Help with better sexual experiance
It can be developed if STI specially chlymedia goes untreated. fallopian tubes get infected
When the embryo starts developing in the fallopian tube instead of the uterus.
A group of physiological and psychological symptoms related to the post ovulation.
What is the difference between PMS and PMDD?
PMDD is most deabilitation and sever form of PMS.
How are testies developed in men?
Produce androgen which produces groups of hormones most imprtant one is testostrone. Females also produce testostrone which gives them libido.
Male external sex organs include:
Male internal sex organs include:
the ejaculatory pathway which includes:
Contains glans and the root
It is composed of three cylinders. like clitoris contains erectile tissues that fill with blood and cause erection.
Where clitoris is only made of two spongy muscles of corpora cavernosa, penis has an additional spongy tissue called corpus spongiosum that contains urethra.
Is made of the corona and the frenulum and the meatus which is the urethral opening at the opening of the penis.
Fold of skin that covers the glans penis and called the prepuce
enters the bodu just below the pubic bone and it is attached to the internal pelvic muscle.
Contains testicles and there is a thin layer of tissue separating the sacs.
It is designed to regulate testicular temperature.
Presence of sweat glands and the cremaster muscle helps it contract and expand.
Having one testicles lower then the other helps them slide over instead of crushing together.
The main functions are:
Is the structure that produce and store sperms
One of the two tubes that convey the sperm from the testes and in which other fluids are mixed to create semen.
To sterilize a men this tube would be cut.
The fluid that is made here comprise 70% of male semen.
Make the semen alkeline
It also provide fructose which is the nutrient needed for the sperm
Tube that transports spermatozoa from the vas deferens to the urethra
Produces men's 30% semen
It also provides more alkelinity to neutralize the acidity of the vagina.
It is located at the base of the bladder
Bulbourethral gland(cowper gland):
One of a pair of glands located under prostate gland on either side of the urethra that secrets fluid into the urethra.
It also produces pre-ejaculate.
What is the difference between orgasm and ejaculation?
Orgasm is the sensation where as ejaculation is leaving the seman from the body.
Contains the spermatic cord
Human Sexual Response
What are some contributing factors that can have influance sexual response?
Genetic: this aspect plays a role for lower species. We are not genetically predisposed . We are more socialized to be turned on by certain things.
Hormones: Testostrone which is vital for libido
vasopressin which is the hug hormone
dopamine which is the love hormone
Once you get certain amount of testostrone having more testostrone would not really matter.
Surge of estrogen where indicates that femals are ready to mate.
For animals hormone play an important role. emitting smell shows that they are ready to mate. Although in human they don't emit a smell on a 28 day cycle woman will ovulate on the 14th day suggesting they are ready to get impregnated.
Prairie voles tends to be monogomous , what is the reason.
The reason is that there is more vasopressin is present in their body
What are phermones:
This is the signal for animals which is usually present in the animal's urine.
Phermones help regulate the menastrual cycle
human also excrete phermones mostly the under arm.
When women live in a group after awhile they would menstruate during same time.
Parts of the body that are succeptible to stimulus
Primary: genital, breast, lips
Secondary: based on likes or dislikes
Something that increase libido such as oysters , chocolate
Alcohol is not an aphrodisiac it is a centeral nervous system depressent.
What is learning:
It is a modification of behavior as a result of experiance
Psychosocial processes include:
Stanley Rachman:Person who came up with the classical conditioning
Male vs. Female in the erotica exoeriment: which was seen that men and woman respond the same to the sexual stimuli
What is the difference between sexual fantasy in woman vs. men?
Woman tend to fantasize more about:
sex with current partner
Reliving past sexual experience
Engaging in different sexual positions
Having sex in rooms other then bedroom
Sex in carpeted floor
Men tend to fantasize more about:
Engaging in different sexual positions
Having an aggressive partner
Receiving oral sex
Having sex with new partner
Having sex on the beach
Sexuality and Communication
Koss 1988 advocacy research
She did advocacy research and the finding suggested that 1/4 of woman were sexually assulted and 1/5 were raped.
Her definition of sexual assult and rape were broad.
Gilbert assulted her findings because she inflated the numbers to make matters look more serious.
Did a study with undergraduate men to see if they felt ok to push a woman to have sex. The scenarios that they felt ok were if : a woman asked a man out. Women went to the men's house and men pays for everything.
He asked if man had a powert to not be accused of rape and don't get caught to push a woman to have sex they will do it.
Men and women don't understand each other.
Woman seem to hold power of sex and they may have an idea how far they might go on the first date.
What are some characteristics of friends with benefits:
It is different from one night stand because it is on going
It is not like cheating
They might like each other
36% of friendship continues without sex
Why Kaplan model was unique?
Because Kaplan included desire in the stages of sexual arousal