medical microbiology

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medical microbiology
2011-03-24 18:40:29
adaptive immunity

humoral and cell-mediated
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  1. recognition of self vs. nonself
    • (clonal deletion hypothesis)
    • takes place in the bone marrow and thymus.
    • removes thos lymphocytes that hve receptors for self antigens.
    • when lymphocyted bind to self antigens, clonal deletion occurs
  2. specificity
    • the property of the immune system
    • each reaction is directed towards a specific foreign antigen
  3. diversity
    the ability of the immune system to produce different kinds of antibodies and T cell receptors each reacting with a different epitote (antigenic determinant)
  4. memory
    • it can recognize substances it has previously encountered
    • which allows the immune system to respond rapidly
    • (by making memory cells during first reaction)
  5. APC's
    • antigen presenting cells
    • macrophages and B cells
    • --ingest whole microbe or just antigen, process it and place the antigen on it's surface on the major histamine complex (MHC)
  6. Anitgen
    some kind of molecule that will elicite some kind of immune responce
  7. epitode
    part of the anitgen - determinant site
  8. B cells
    come from the bone marrow and differentiate in the bone marrow
  9. T cell
    come from the bone marrow but differentiate in the thymus
  10. Humoral
    B cell responce to T-dependent anitgen
  11. Humoral
    B cell responce to T-independent antigen
  12. antibody -- IgM
    • pentamer
    • 1st one secreted into blood during the early stages of primary responce
    • 10 antigen binding sites
    • activates compliment and causes the microorganism to clump together
  13. antibody -- IgA
    • secretory: two monomers united togther by a J chain
    • has an attached secretory component which protects it from protein splitting enzymes
    • binds antigens and microorganisms before they invade the tissue -- also activates compliment
  14. antibody -- IgG
    • the main class found in the blood
    • produced in large quantities during secondary responce
    • only immunoglobulin that can cross the placenta
    • antigen binding site attaches to antigen on microorganism
    • tissue binding site attaches to receptors on phagocytic cells
  15. antibodies
    • all produced by B cells
    • y-shaped protein molecule
    • chemical structurs of the constant regions determine the class it belongs to
    • the variable region have a particular shape and charge that enables the molecule to bind to a particular antigen