Public Health exam 2

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Public Health exam 2
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2011-03-27 21:35:54
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exam 2
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  1. food security
    access of all people all the time to sufficient, safe, and nutritious food to maintain a healthy and active life
  2. Salmonella Dublin
    species enterica
  3. Salmonella in turtles
    • due to the high risk of Salmonella infection, turtles less than 4 inches in diameter cannot be sold as pets in the US
    • asym carriers
    • Ab do not help
  4. hazard in HACCP
    • biological/chemical/physical agent that is likely to cause illness/injury
    • agent that causes the event to occur
    • not risk (probability that an event will occur)
  5. HACCP
    • hazard analysis critical control points
    • can be used to control hazards of public health and animal health concerns
  6. listeriosis
    • grow at fridge temp- cheese, deli meat
    • high mortality- mild febrile in humans
    • in soil, water, silage, mammals, birds
    • abortions in humans- verticle transmission
    • fever, dep, CNS in cattle
  7. HACCP principles
    • Conduct an analysis of potential hazards
    • Determine the critical control points
    • Establish critical limits/measures
    • establish monitoring requirements for CCPs
    • Establish corrective measures when CCPs are not under control
    • Monitor system
    • Establish documentation
  8. monitoring vs surveillance
    • M: routine collection of info on dz, productivity, and other characteristics possibly related to them in a pop
    • S: more intense data recording that results in an action
  9. external surveillance
    • preemptive surveillance, risk surveillance
    • protect a naive pop from an agent before it enters the pop
    • test before entering dz free zone
  10. internal surveillance
    • post facto surveillance
    • detecting the agent after it has entered the pop
  11. who condemns a cattle carcass
    only a veterinary medical officer
  12. US Dept of Health and Human Services
    • FDA
    • CDC
    • NIH
  13. US Dept of Agriculture
    • FSIS
    • APHIS
    • FAS
  14. Species not subject to FMIA
    • bison
    • deer
    • elk
    • reindeer
    • water buffalo
    • catalo
    • FDA covers these
  15. postmortem dispositions
    • US inspected and passed
    • US inspected and condemned
    • Passed for refrigeration
    • Passed for cooking
    • Passed for heating
    • Passed for use in cooked comminuted products
  16. Antemortem disposition
    • Pass for regular slaughter
    • Pass for slaughter as US suspect
    • US condemned
  17. sanitary measures for dz control
    • screening for dz
    • defensive measures on dz free farms
    • offensive measures on infected farms
  18. brucellosis
    • Tx is currently cattle brucellosis free (B. abortus)
    • Tx is only state not swine brucellosis free
    • 1st point testing in livestock market
  19. Campylobacter
    • C. jejuni
    • cattle, pig, and poultry asym reservoir
    • cannot survive long in env (unlike E.coli and Sal)
    • common source is raw chicken
  20. state meat inspection
    • all states do not have
    • Tx has one
    • can only ship intrastate
  21. anthrax outbreak
    • carcasses must be burned
    • livestock cannot be moved from affected premises until 10 days after all livestock on the premises have been vacc and all affected carcasses properly disposed
  22. biosecurity principles
    • Resist- inc animals ability to resist dz
    • Isolate- prevent contact btw animals
    • Traffic- control traffic onto and within farm
    • Sanitation- eliminate sources of inf agents
  23. USDA-APHIS
    • Animal Care (AC)
    • Biotechnology Regulatory Services (BRS)
    • International Services and Trade Support Team (IS)
    • Plant protection and Quarantine (PPQ)
    • Veterinary Services (VS)
    • Wildlife Services (WS)
  24. OIE
    • World Organization for Animal Health
    • fight animal dz globally
    • transparency, scientific info, solidarity, sanitary, vet servicesfood safety
    • voluntary
  25. post harvest food safety
    • ante- and post-mortem inspection
    • sanitary processing of food animals and packaging of their products
    • pasteurization and irradiation
    • proper storage
    • proper handling and cooking
    • HACCP
  26. pre-harvest food safety
    • reduction in residue
    • HACCP
    • produce wholesome food free of harmful contaminants
  27. food safety
    dev and implement of control and mitigation strategies to prevent or reduce microbial, chemical, and physical contamination of food
  28. enforcer of Humane Slaughter Act of 1978
    • USDA-FSIS
    • does not include poultry
  29. herd health program
    • a planned animal health and production management program with regularly scheduled veterinary activities and good herd management designed to achieve and maintain optimum animal health and production
    • most efficient production that provides economic returns
    • maintain animal well being
    • minimize pollution
  30. HACCP
    • focuses on id and preventing hazards
    • scientifically based
    • more efficient- record keeping allows long term assessment of performance
    • manufacturers and distributors assume responsibility
    • inc international competitiveness
    • reduce barriers to international trade
  31. regulated garbage is under USDA-APHIS...
    Veterinary Regulatory Services
  32. general livestock inspection and slaughter
    • only downer cattle are immediately condemned
    • all meat products sold for public consumption must be inspected
    • usto, slaughter animals for personal consumption do not have to be inspected
    • grading of meat for public consumption is not mandatory
  33. performing an antemortem inspectiom
    • observation at rest and in motion
    • day of slaughter
    • on premises
  34. Salmonella serovars in animals
    • Typhimurium
    • Pullorum
    • Enteritidis
    • Choleraesuis
    • Newport
    • NOT Typhi
  35. Listeria
    • reservoir is spoiled or moldy (high pH) corn silage and soil
    • L. monocytogenes
    • vertical transmission in humans
    • highest case fatality
  36. FDA
    responsible for the safety of all foods except meat, poultry, and egg products
  37. Foodnet
    • foodborne dz active surveillance network
    • principle foodborne dz component of CDCs Emerging Infectious Program
    • lab based with active data collection
    • determine the burden of foodborne illness in US
    • for humans, not animals
  38. target sampling
    • sampling high risk pop in which specific known risk factors exist
    • performed to inc the efficiency of the system
    • warranted when the dz is more common in the target pop than the general pop
    • not a probability sampling technique
  39. active data collection
    • regular testing or recording of cases for the specific goal of monitoring or surveillance
    • mandated
    • costly
    • ex- BSE, TB, brucellosis
  40. passive data collection
    • reporting of clinical cases by health care professionals on a voluntary basis
    • inconsistent
    • ex- FAD
  41. vesicular stomatitis (VS)
    • horses, cattle, swine, camelids
    • transmitted via biting flies
    • zoonotic
    • western hemisphere (Americas)
    • erosions of tongue, lip, coronary band
    • contact authorities
    • no tx
  42. Foot and Mouth Dz
    • highly transmissible- via direct contact, garbage
    • high morbidity, low mortality (except young)
    • cloven hoofed animals (not horses)
    • all secretions are infective
    • amplifying host- pig
    • indicator host- cattle
    • maintenance host- sheep
    • erosions, tiger heart
    • pigs knuckle
    • always contact authorities
    • no tx
    • rare zoonosis
  43. Classical Swine Fever (CSF)
    • looks like African Swine Fever
    • highly contagious
    • domestic and feral swine, european wild boar
    • direct transmission
    • worldwide
    • not zoonotic
    • high virulence= high mortality, low vir= asym
    • fever, skin hemorrhage, convulsions, death
    • tonsilar necrosis, LN hemorrhage, splenic infarct
    • no tx
    • notify authorities
  44. African Swine Fever (ASF)
    • european wild boar, domestic swine, wild swine
    • highly transmissible- via direct contact and ticks
    • looks like classical swine fever
    • blotchy skin, diarrhea
    • enlarge, fiable, dark red spleen
    • swollen and hemorrhagic LN
    • huddling
    • notify authorities
  45. Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI)
    • highly contagious
    • looks like Exotic New Castle Dz
    • Types A, subtypes H5 and H7
    • reportable
    • migrating waterfowl are asym carriers
    • swine are mixing vessel
    • transmit via direct contact
    • worldwide
    • zoonotic
    • resp prob, ruffled feathers, death, swelling, CNS, hemorrhage in trachea, kidney congestion, cyanosis
    • no tx
  46. Exotic New Castle Dz (END)
    • highly contagious
    • looks like HPAI
    • all avian species
    • transmit via direct contact
    • worldwide
    • zoonotic
    • asym enteric not reportable (lentogenic)
    • resp or neuro signs reportable (mesogenic and velogenic)
    • death, swelling, hemorrhagic internal organs, cyanosis
  47. Toxoplasma gondii
    takes 1-5 days for oocyst to sporulate
  48. SRM for BSE
    • brain (>30mth)
    • eyes (>30mth)
    • spinal cord (>30mth)
    • distal ileum (all)
    • tonsils (all)
  49. 5 practice to improve herd health
    • limited movement of animals on and off farm
    • vacc protocol
    • feeding regimen standardized, do not feed on gorund
    • separate sleeves for preg checks
    • dispose of manure
  50. Salmonella Enteritidis
    S. enterica
  51. USDA-FSIS
    regulate meat, poultry, and processed eggs
  52. postmortem organoleptics
    touch, sight, smell
  53. syndromic surveillance
    • surveillance using human/animal health related data that precedes diagnosis and signal a sufficient probability of a case or an outbreak to warrant further public/veterinary health response
    • real time surveillance
    • computerized
  54. Sentinel surveillance
    • using sentinel animals/herds for detection of the agent in question
    • early detection and warning
    • ex- use of chickens for encephalitis virus surveillance
  55. CDC
    • monitors frequency of infectious dz and assists local and state health dept to investigate outbreaks and dz control
    • for humans
  56. NIH
    primary federal agency for conducting and supporting medical research
  57. FDA
    assure safety, effectiveness and security of human and animal drugs, biologics, medical devices, food supply, and cosmetics
  58. World Health Organization (WHO)
    directing and coordinating authority for health within the UN
  59. Pan American Health Organization (PAHO)
    improve health and living standards in the Americas
  60. Food and Ag Organization of the UN (FAO)
    defeat hunger internationally
  61. FSIS routinely tests for these pathogens
    • E. coli
    • Listeria
    • Salmonella
  62. E. coli
    principle source is cattle (O157:H7)

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