Supreme Court Cases

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Supreme Court Cases
2011-03-24 23:19:36
Court Cases

landmark U.S. Supreme Court Cases
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  1. Marbury v. Madison (1803)
    • -established Judicial Review and Appelate System
    • -Judiciary Act of 1789 was unconstitutional
  2. McCulloch v. Maryland (1819)
    • -Maryland tried to tax a national bank
    • -established national over state supremacy
    • -established implied power
    • -established government's use of the elastic clause (implied powers)
  3. Plessy v. Ferguson (1896)
    -Established separate but equal
  4. Shenck v. U.S. (1919)
    • -established limits on free speech
    • -speech can only be limited if it constitutes "clear and present danger"
  5. Gitlow v. New York (1925)
    -established precedent for federalizing the Bill of Rights (incorporation doctrine)
  6. Palko v. Connecticut (1937)
    -established a test to determine which parts of the Bill of Rights should be incorporated
  7. Brown v. Board 1 (1954)
    • -overturned separate but equal
    • -unanimous decision
  8. Brown v. Board 2 (1955)
    ordered all schools to desegregate with all due and deliberate speed (finally happened in 1963/4)
  9. Mapp v. Ohio (1961)
    • -established exclusionary rule (evidence and warrants)
    • -something illegal found during a legal search that isn't listed on the warrant can't be used as evidence
  10. Engle v. Vitale (1962)
    -illegal for states to establish a school prayer and require prayer in school
  11. Baker v. Carr (1962)
    -courts can hear and decide reapportionment cases (district line drawing)
  12. Abbington v. Schempp (1963)
    -banned the Lord's Prayer and Bible reading in public schools
  13. Gideon v. Wainright (1963)
    -courts are required by the 16th amendment to supply lawyers for those who can't afford them
  14. Wesberry v. Sanders (1963)
    -congressional districts have to be approximately equal in population
  15. Griswold v. Connecticut (1965)
    • -a law in Connecticut that didn't allow contraceptives
    • -ruled constitution protected a right to privacy
  16. Miranda v. Arizona (1965)
    -have to be told your rights when you are arrested before you are questioned
  17. Epperson v. Arkansas (1968)
    -invalidated an Arkansas statute forbidding teaching of evolution in schools
  18. Lemon v. Kurtzman (1971)
    • -overturned a law that allowed the state to reimburse teachers of secular material in private schools for salary and supplies
    • -violated the establishment clause
  19. Roe v. Wade (1973)
    -right to privacy under the 14th amendment protected the right to abortion
  20. U.S. v. Nixon (1974)
    • -is material safeguarded by "executive privilege" subject to judicial review?
    • -conclusion: there is no presidential privilege
  21. Buckley v. Valeo (1976)
    • -limited campaign contributions but allowed some others
    • -candidates can donate unlimitedly to their own campaign
  22. U.C. Regents v. Bakke (1978)
    • -race could be a factor in admitting a student to a university
    • -reason: to establish a more diverse student body
    • -established affirmative action
  23. Webster v. Reproductive Health Services (1987)
    -upheld a state law that restricted use of federal funds, employees, and facilities in assisting with or performing an abortion
  24. Planned Parenthood v. Casey (1992)
    • -states can restrict abortion as long as it does not impose an undue burden on the women
    • e.g. 24-hour waiting period
    • e.g. parental consent for minors
  25. Shaw v. Reno (1993)
    -no racial gerrymandering (redrawing congressional district lines
  26. U.S. v. Lopez (1995)
    • -established areas that the government could regulate under the commerce clause
    • -channels of interstate commerce
    • -instrumentalities of commerce or people or things involved in commerce
    • -things that substantially affect or relate to commerce
  27. Bush v. Gore (2000)
    • -said parts of Florida Law were unconstitutional and that methods were unjust
    • -allowed state's votes for Bush to stand
  28. District of Columbia v. Heller (2008)
    -2nd amendment protects citizens' right to carry a gun for use within the home in federal "enclaves"
  29. Citizens United v. FEC (2010)
    -corporate funding of individual campaign broadcasts cannot be limited under the 1st amendment