Ch 7-10 (2)

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Ch 7-10 (2)
2011-03-25 01:24:16

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  1. heat treatment
    a process by which the flintknapping properties of stone tool raw material are improved by subjecting the material to heat
  2. flake
    a thin, sharp sliver of stone removed from a core during the knapping process
  3. core
    a piece of stone that is worked ("knapped"). Cores sometimes serve merely as sources for raw materials; they also can serve as functional tools
  4. flute
    distinctive channel on the faces of Folson and Clovis projectile points formed by removal of one or more flakes from the point's base
  5. channel flake
    the longitudinal flake removed from the faces of Folson and Clovis projectile points to create the flute
  6. microwear
    minute, often microscopic, evidence of use damage on the surface and working edge of a flake or artifact; can include some striations, pitting, microflaking, and polish
  7. ethnoarchaeology
    the study of contemporary peoples to determine how human behavior is translated into the archaeological record
  8. slash-and-burn
    a horticultural method used frequently in the tropics wherein a section of forest is cut, dried, and then burned, thus returning nutrients to the ground. This permits a plot of land to be farmed for a limited number of years
  9. faunal assemblage
    the animal remains recovered from an archaeological site
  10. kill sites
    places where animals were killed in the past
  11. zooarchaeologist
    an archaeologist who specializes in the study of the animal remains recovered from archaeological sites
  12. faunal analysis
    identification and interpretation of animal remains from archaeological sites
  13. element
    in faunal analysis, a specific skeletal part of the body - for example, humerus or sternum
  14. taxon
    in faunal analysis, the classification of a skeletal element to a taxonomic category - species, genus, family, or order
  15. size classes
    a categorization of faunal remains, not to taxon, but to one of the five categories based on body size
  16. comparative collection
    a skeletal collection of modern fauna of both sexes and different ages used to make identifications of archaeofaunas
  17. number of identified specimens (NISP)
    the raw number of identified bones (specimens) per species
  18. minimum number of individuals (MNI)
    the smallest number of individuals necessary to account for all identified bones
  19. axial skeleton
    the head, mandibles, vertebrae, ribs, sacrum, and tail of an animal skeleton
  20. appendicular skeleton
    all parts of an animal excluding the axial skeleton
  21. seasonality
    an estimate of what part of the year a particular archaeological site was occupied
  22. puna
    Native American (Quechua) term for the treeless, windswept tablelands and basins of higher Andes
  23. ch'arki
    Native South American (Quechua) term for freeze-dried llama and alpaca meat
  24. macrobotanical remains
    nonmicroscopic plant remains recovered from an archaeological site
  25. paleoethnobotanist
    an archaeologist who analyzez and interprets plant remains from archaeological sites in order to understand past interactions between human populations and plants
  26. coprolite
    desiccated feces, often containing macrobotanical remains, pollen, and the remains of small animals
  27. palynology
    the study of fossil pollen grains and spores to reconstruct past climates and human behavior
  28. pollen diagram
    a chart showing the changing frequencies of different identified pollens through time from samples taken from archaeological or other sites
  29. Clovis
    the earlist well-established Native American culture, distributed throughout much of North America and dating 10,900 to 11,200 BC
  30. phytoliths
    tiny silica particles contained in plants. Sometime these fragments can be recovered from archaeological sites even after the plants themselves have decayed
  31. wood rats (pack rats)
    rodents that build nests of organic materials and this preserve a record, often for thousands of years, of changing plant species within the local are of the nest
  32. Holocene
    the pose-Pleostocene geological epoch that began about 10,000 radiocarbon years ago and continues today
  33. lipids
    organic substances - including fats, oils, and waxes - that resist mixing with water, found in both plant and animal tissues
  34. bioarchaeology
    the study of the human biological component evident in the archaeological record
  35. osteology
    the study of bone
  36. burial population
    a set of human burials that came from a limited region and a limited time period. The more limited the region and the time period, the more accurate will be inferences drawn from analysis of the burials
  37. charnel house
    a structure used by eastern North Americans to lay out the dead where the body would decompose. The bones would later be gathered and buried or cremated
  38. bundle burial
    burial of a person's bones, bundled together, after the flesh has been removed or allowed to decay off the bones
  39. haplogroup
    genetic lineages defined by similar genes at a locus on a chromosome
  40. molecular clock
    calculations of the time since divergence of two related populations using the presumed rate of mutation in mtDNA and the genetic differences between the two populations
  41. gene
    the unit of chromosomes that control inheritance of particular traits
  42. mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA)
    genetic material found in the mitochondria of cells; it is inherited only from the mother and appears to mutate at a rate of 2-4 percent per 1 million years
  43. molecular archaeology
    the use of genetic information in ancient human remains to reconstruct the past
  44. nuclear DNA
    genetic material found in a cell's nucleus; this material is primarily responsible for an individual's inherited traits
  45. caries
  46. bone collagen
    the organic component of bone
  47. long bone cross sections
    cross sections of the body's long bones (arms and legs) used to analyze bone shape and reconstruct the mechanical stresses placed on that bone - and hence activity patterns
  48. paleodemography
    the study of ancient demographic patterns and trends
  49. mortality profiles
    charts that depict the various ages at death of a burial population
  50. osteoarthritis
    a disorder in which the cartilafe between the joints wear away, often because of overuse of the joint, resulting in osteophytes and eburnation
  51. osteophyte
    a sign of osteoarthritis in which bones develop a distinct "lipping" of bone at the point of articulation
  52. eburnation
    a sign of osteoarthritis in which the epiphyses of long bones are worn smooth, causing them to ake on a varnish-like appearance
  53. porotic hyperostosis
    a symptom of iron deficiency anemia in which the skil takes on a porous appearance
  54. cribra orbitalia
    a symptom of iron deficiency anemia in which the bone of the upper eye sockets takes on a spongy appearance
  55. Harris lines
    horizontal lines near the ends of long bones indicating episodes of phsyiological stress
  56. enamel hypoplasias
    horizontal linear defects in tooth enamel indicating episodes of physiological stress
  57. pubic symphysis
    where two halves of the pubis meet in the groin area; the appearance of its articulating surface can be used to age skeletons
  58. paleopathology
    the study of ancient patterns of disease, disorders, and trauma
  59. sciatic notch
    the angled edge of both halves of the posterior (rear) side of the pelvis; measurement of this angle is used to determine sex in human skeletons. Although its width varies among population, narrow notches indicate a male and wider notches indicate a female
  60. epiphyses
    the ends of bones that fuses to the main shaft or portion of the bone at various ages; most bones are fused by age 25. This fact can be used to age skeletons of younger individuals