Ch16 NHP Blue Book

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Ch16 NHP Blue Book
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ACLAM Nonhuman primate Blue book chapter
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Chapter 16 NHP Blue Book
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  1. Que. State the common names for the following nonhuman primates: Macaca mulatta, Macaca fascicularis, Papio spp., Saimiri spp., Aotus spp., Callithrix spp., and Sanguinus spp.
    • Ans. Rhesus monkeys, cynomolgus monkeys, baboons, squirrels monkeys, owl monkeys, marmosets, and tamarins
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch. 16, p.676
  2. Que. What organization is responsible for the publication �Primate Supply Clearinghouse�?
    • Ans. The Washington Regional Primate Center
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch. 16, p.676
  3. Que. What is the importance of �Primate Supply Clearinghouse�?
    • Ans. It has made significant contributions to conservation by recycling animals to studies that would not be confounded by their prior use.
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch. 16, p.676
  4. Que. What does the acronym CITES represent?
    • Ans. Convention on the International Trade In Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora Treaty (1975)
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch. 16, p.676
  5. Que: How many new species of New World Monkeys have been identified since 1990?
    • Ans: 22
    • Ref: LAM, 2nd ed., Ch16, p677
  6. Que: What species share characteristics of both prosimians and anthropoid primates?
    • Ans: Tarsiers
    • Ref: LAM, 2nd ed., Ch16, p677
  7. Que: What is the suborder, infraorder and family of tarsiers?
    • Ans: Suborder � Prosimii, infraorder � Tarsiiformes, Family � Tarsiidae
    • Ref: LAM, 2nd ed., Ch16, p677
  8. Que: Taxonomists have divided the order Primates into what two distinct classes?
    • Ans: Strepsirhini and Haplorhini
    • Ref: LAM, 2nd ed., Ch16, p677
  9. Que: What does the class Strepsirhini include?
    • Ans: only prosimians
    • Ref: LAM, 2nd ed., Ch16, p677
  10. Que. ________ and ________ are used to identify genera found in Africa and Asia or South and Central America, respectively.
    • Ans. Old World Monkey, New World Monkey
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch.16, p 678
  11. Que. The term ________ primate is considered interchangeable with New World monkey to describe primates indigenous to the Americas.
    • Ans. neotropica
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch.16, p 678
  12. Que. Prosimian is used to describe all taxa with the suborder Prosimii, such as ______ and _____. The word prosimian, from the Latin root word meaning �________� refers to their relatively more primitive phylogenetic position within the order. Prosimian primates are not considered to be �________�.
    • Ans. lemurs, tarsiers, before monkey, monkeys
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch.16, p 678
  13. Que. Simian is used as a adjective to describe monkeys and ________.
    • Ans. apes
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch.16, p 678
  14. Que. Cheek pouches are specialized pouches found in genera within what family?
    Ans. Cercopithecidae
  15. Que. Are ischial callosities found in New World monkeys?
    Ans. No
  16. Que. A pseudoprenhensile tail is found in some genera of ______ primates.
    Ans. Neotropical
  17. Que. What are the principal descriptors used to differentiate infa orders Platyrrhini and Catarrhini?
    Ans. Spacing and orientation of nares
  18. Que. Catarhine means the nares is what orientation?
    • Ans. Narrow, turned-down
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch., p679
  19. Que. Of all the nonhuman primates, which group(s) has a hemochorial placenta (Prosimians, Platyrrhines, or Catarrhines?
    • Ans. Platyrrhines and Catarrhines
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch. 16, p 680
  20. Que. Of all the nonhuman primates, which group(s) has an epitheliochorial placenta (Prosimians, Platyrrhines, or Catarrhines?
    • Ans. Prosimians
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch. 16, p 680
  21. Que. Which family of the Prosimians has a hemochorial placenta?
    • Ans. Tarsiidae
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch. 16, p 680
  22. Que. Of all the nonhuman primates, which group(s) require vitamin D3 (Prosimians, Platyrrhines, or Catarrhines?
    • Ans. Platyrrhines
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch. 16, p 680
  23. Que. Of all the nonhuman primates, which group(s) can utilize vitamin D2 in their diet (Prosimians, Platyrrhines, or Catarrhines?
    • Ans. Catarrhines
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch. 16, p 680
  24. Que. Of all the nonhuman primates, which group has a �toilet claw� (Prosimians, Platyrrhines, or Catarrhines and which digit and limb is it on?
    • Ans. Prosimians, second digit of the foot
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch. 16, p 680
  25. Que. Callitrichidae have claws or _______ instead of nails.
    • Ans. Falcula
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch. 16 p. 681
  26. Que. Callitrichidae have a specialized nail on the first digit of each foot, the _____, which is opposable, while the thumb is not.
    • Ans. Hallux
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch. 16 p. 681
  27. Que. Callitrichids are unique in that usually only one adult female in an extended breeding group _______; subordinate females, usually offspring of the breeding female, may or may not have an estrous cycle.
    • Ans. Reproduces
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch. 16 p. 681
  28. Que. All callitrichid twins and many singletons appear to be permanent _______.
    • Ans. Chimeras
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch. 16 p. 681
  29. Que. The genus of marmosets is ________.
    • Ans. Callathrix
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch. 16 p. 681
  30. Que. The two genera of tamarins are ________ and ________.
    • Ans. Saguinus, Leontopithecus
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch. 16 p. 681
  31. Que. ________ have procumbent incisor teeth that are the same length as the canine teeth, which enables them to gnaw holes in trees and gums.
    • Ans. Marmosets
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch. 16 p. 681
  32. Que. Probably the single most important determinant for group territory size in the Marmosets and tamarins is _________.
    • Ans. availability of food supply
    • Ref. LAM-2nd ed. Ch 16, p682
  33. Que. Usually, common marmoset groups contain _______________________.
    • Ans. only one breeding pair, which are the highest-ranking animal within the group. The group may contain one to two immigrants and several sets of offspring.
    • Ref. LAM-2nd ed. Ch 16, p682
  34. Que. Tamarins have a __________ social structure, and groups consist of ________
    • Ans. multimale-multifemale social structure and group consist of unrelated and related adults and offspring.
    • Ref. LAM-2nd ed. Ch 16, p682
  35. Que. Marmosets and tamarins are _______, feeding on __________________.
    • Ans. omnivorous, insects, fruits, nectars, tree exudates (gum and sap), and whatever small animal they can capture.
    • Ref. LAM-2nd ed. Ch 16, p682
  36. Que. How is puberty in female callitrichids influenced by the type of social setting?
    • Ans. puberty begins in female tamarins living in their family group at 15-17 months of age, however, females removed from the family group at 9 months of age and paired with an unrelated male begin cycling at 10-11 months
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch. 16, p683
  37. Que. What social situations suppress fertility in female callitrichids?
    • Ans. Young female tamarins, 20-28 months of age, have suppressed fertility while living in their family groups indicated by low acyclic levels of luetinizing hormone and estradiol. Subordinate female Callithrix jacchus (common marmoset) in peer groups will not cycle untile removed from the group.
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch. 16, p683
  38. Que. How is reproductive cyclicity suppressed in female callitrichids?
    • Ans. Scent marking by dominant females
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch. 16, p683
  39. Que. When do male Callithrix jacchus (common marmoset) reach adult levels of plasma testosterone?
    • Ans. approximately 18 months
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch. 16, p683
  40. Que. Are male Callithrix jacchus (common marmoset) able to impregnate females prior to reaching adult levels of plasma testosterone?
    • Ans. yes
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch. 16, p683
  41. Que. What is the length of the ovarian cycle of Callithrix jacchus (common marmoset)?
    • Ans. 28.6 to 30.1
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch. 16, p683
  42. Que. What is the length of the follicular phase of Callithrix jacchus (common marmoset)?
    • Ans. 8.5 days
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch. 16, p683
  43. Que. What is the length of luteal phase of Callithrix jacchus (common marmoset)?
    • Ans. 19-21 days
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch. 16, p683
  44. Que. What cells are noted on the vaginal cytology to indicate the estrous phase of Callithrix jacchus (common marmoset)?
    • Ans. There is not detectable change in vaginal cytology
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch. 16, p683
  45. Que. How can the estrous cycle be detected in Callithrix jacchus (common marmoset)?
    • Ans. Changes in peripheral plasma hormone levels or hormone levels in urine or feces. A marked rise in plasma progesterone within 1 day postovulation is a useful indicator of ovulation.
    • Ref. LAM, 2ed ed., Ch. 16, p683
  46. Que. Do Callithrix jacchus (common marmoset) have lactational anestrus?
    • Ans. no
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch. 16, p683
  47. Que. When does ovulation occur postpartum in Callithrix jacchus (common marmoset)?
    • Ans. 10-18 days
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch. 16, p683
  48. Que. What is the length of ovarian cycles in Saguinus edipus (tamarin)?
    • Ans. 15.2 days
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch. 16, p683
  49. Que. What is the length of ovarian cycles in Saguinus fuscicollis (tamarin)?
    • Ans. 17.3 days
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch. 16, p683
  50. Que. Do tamarins have postpartum estrus?
    • Ans. no
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch. 16, p683
  51. Que. What is the gestation length of callitrichids used in research?
    • Ans. 140 t0 150 days for the species used in research
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch. 16, p683
  52. Que. How soon can pregnancy be detected in callitrichids?
    • Ans. 2 weeks
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch. 16, p683
  53. Que. How can 2 week pregnancies be detected in marmosets and tamarins?
    • Ans. plasma or urine placental chorionic gonadotropin levels
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch. 16, p683
  54. Que. What is the most common number of babies are produced per pregnancy in marmosets and tamarins?
    • Ans. two, dizygotic twinning is the rule
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch. 16, p683
  55. Que. During what time of day is parturition expected for callitrichids?
    • Ans. most deliveries occur at night
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch. 16, p683
  56. Que. Why does blood chimerism occur in callitrichids?
    • Ans. placental vascular anastomoses
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch. 16, p683
  57. Que. Does freemartinism occur in callitrichids?
    • Ans. no
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch. 16, p683
  58. Que. Why does freemartinism not occur in callitrichids?
    • Ans. callitrichid placenta possesses an effective aromatizing enzyme which can convert androgens to estrone
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch. 16, p683
  59. Que. What is the birth weight of Callithrix. jacchus (common marmoset)?
    • Ans. Females 31.1 g, males 31.7 g
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch. 16, p683
  60. Que. What is the birth weight of Saguinus fuscicollis (tamarin)?
    • Ans. 39.9 g (34 � 52.7g)
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch. 16, p683
  61. Que. What is the birth weight of Saguinus oedipus (cotton-top tamarin)?
    • Ans. 40 g
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch. 16, p683
  62. Que. At what age do natal group Saguinus oedipus (cotton-top tamarin) mature sexually?
    • Ans. female 15-17 months in natal groups
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch. 16, p683
  63. Que. At what age do new pair Saguinus oedipus (cotton-top tamarin) mature sexually?
    • Ans. female 10-11 months in new pairs
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch. 16, p683
  64. Que. At what age do Saguinus mystax (mustached tamarin) mature sexually?
    • Ans. female 15-17 months, male 17-18 months
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch. 16, p683
  65. Que. At what age do Saguinus fuscicollis (tamarin) mature sexually?
    • Ans. 23 months
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch. 16, p683
  66. Que. AT what do Callithrix. jacchus (common marmoset) mature sexually?
    • Ans. Females 20-24 months, males 15 months
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch. 16, p683
  67. Que. What is the genus and species of the marmoset that is most commonly used in biomedical research?
    • Ans. Callithrix jacchus
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch 16, P686
  68. Que. Name three diseases that common marmosets are as models for?
    • Ans. Parkinson�s disease, allergic encephalomyelitis, idiopathic hemochromatosis
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch 16, P686
  69. Que. Which of the Callitrichidae is used in research as a model of chronic colitis and colon cancer?
    • Ans. Cotton-top tamarin (Sanguinus oedipus)
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch 16, P686
  70. Que. Which two Callitrichidae are used in viral hepatitis studies?
    • Ans. Sanguinus labiatus (white-lipped or red-bellied tamarin), Sanguinus mystax (mustached tamarin)
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch 16, P686
  71. Que. The Aotus genus appears to have evolved from a diurnal vision ancestor because the eyes retain vestigial features characteristic of diurnal vision such as a ___________.
    • Ans. retinal fovea
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch 16, P686
  72. Que. Unlike other nocturnal mammals, Aotus spp lack _____________ in their eyes.
    • Ans. a tapetum lucidum
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch 16, P686
  73. Que. Owl monkeys have a low/high basal metabolic rate, believed to be an adaptation of nocturnal mammals that allows survival with less energy consumption.
    • Ans. low
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch 16, P686
  74. Que. Be able to recognize and name the genus of this common New World nonhuman primate.
    • Ans. Aotus sp.
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch. 16, p. 687
  75. Que. Name the species of owl monkeys that comprise the red-necked group. (Hint: five are listed)
    • Ans. A. nancymaae; A. nigriceps; A. azarae azarae; A. micronax; A. infulatus
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd Ed., Ch. 16, p. 688
  76. Que. Name the two species classified in the grey-necked species of owl monkey.
    • Ans. A. trivirgatus; A. vociferans
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd Ed., Ch. 16, p. 688
  77. Que. True or false: the grey-necked owl monkeys are typically found south of the Amazon River.
    • Ans. False; the grey-necked group occurs north of the Amazon River.
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd Ed., Ch. 16, p. 688
  78. Que. Why is it important to know the karyotype of the owl monkey?
    • Ans. The differences in response to malarial infection vary according to karyotype. In addition, lymphocytes from different species of owl monkeys have differing responses to mitogen stimulation. Karyotype-related differences in albumin and globulin fractions also have been reported.
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd Ed., Ch. 16, p. 688
  79. Que. True or false: Aotus spp. are monogamous
    • Ans. True; they live as monogamous pairs within an extended family.
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd Ed., Ch. 16, p. 688
  80. Que. Which one of the following two species of owl monkey tolerates noncycling or breeding offspring of both sexes within the family group: A. nancymaae or A. vociferans?
    • Ans. A. nancymaae; with A. vociferans only male offspring remain with the group.
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd Ed., Ch. 16, p. 688
  81. Que. True or false: owl monkeys are diurnal, with most activity seen in the daytime.
    • Ans. False: owl monkeys travel at night and are more socially active on moonlit nights. The group exits the sleeping site at dusk and returns at dawn.
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd Ed., Ch. 16, p. 688
  82. Que. What is the average territory, measured in hectares, of an owl monkey in the wild?
    • Ans. 5-9 hectares
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd Ed., Ch. 16, p. 688
  83. Que. True or false: like Callithrix jacchus, Aotus spp. adult males and offspring will actively participate in infant care.
    • Ans. True
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd Ed., Ch. 16, p. 688
  84. Que: How do Aotus spp. defend their territory?
    • Ans: vocalization, posturing, chases and fights.
    • Ref: Laboratory Animal Medicine, 2nd Ed., 2002, p 689.
  85. Que: Intergroup aggression of Aotus spp. is preceded by what behavior?
    • Ans: loud whooping vocalization by both sexes
    • Ref: Laboratory Animal Medicine, 2nd Ed., 2002, p 689.
  86. Que: In Aotus spp., what behavior accompanies whooping vocalization?
    • Ans: piloerection and stiff-legged jumping
    • Ref: Laboratory Animal Medicine, 2nd Ed., 2002, p 689.
  87. Que: Scent marking in Owl monkeys utilize what type of secretions?
    • Ans: urine and glandular secretions
    • Ref: Laboratory Animal Medicine, 2nd Ed., 2002, p 689.
  88. Que: What role does scent marking play in the behavior of Owl monkeys?
    • Ans: an important role in sexual recognition and intermale aggression, but it has little
    • effect on male sexual behavior. Scent marking by either sex does not increase
    • with female estrus.
    • Ref: Laboratory Animal Medicine, 2nd Ed., 2002, p 689.
  89. Que: What is the natural diet of the Owl monkey in the wild state?
    • Ans: principally frugivorous but consume a varied diet of fruits, young leaves, flowers, and insects, and lesser amounts of bird eggs, small birds, and mammals.
    • Ref: Laboratory Animal Medicine, 2nd Ed., 2002, p 689.
    • Que: What is the length of the estrus cycle in the female Owl monkey?
    • Ans: 15-16 days, menstruation does not occur.
    • Ref: Laboratory Animal Medicine, 2nd Ed., 2002, p 689.
  90. Que: The lack of what physical changes characterize the female Owl monkey during estrus?
    • Ans: no change in external genitalia or predictable changes in vaginal cornification
    • during the estrus cycle.
    • Ref: Laboratory Animal Medicine, 2nd Ed., 2002, p 689.
  91. Que: What is the major progesterone metabolite (urinary and plasma) in the Owl
    • monkey?
    • Ans: pregnanediol-3?-glucuronide.
    • Ref: Laboratory Animal Medicine, 2nd Ed., 2002, p689.
  92. Que: What breeding behavior characterizes the estrus cycle of female Owl monkeys?
    • Ans: female Owl monkeys remain sexually attractive and receptive to males
    • throughout the ovarian cycle. Unlike the squirrel monkey in which copulations are
    • limited to the day of ovulation when females are maximally receptive to males.
    • Ref: Laboratory Animal Medicine, 2nd Ed., 2002, p 689.
  93. Que: What sexual behavior increased in frequency when Owl monkeys were housed
    • continuously as pairs?
    • Ans: increased copulatory behavior and scent marking
    • Ref: Laboratory Animal Medicine, 2nd Ed., 2002, p 689.
  94. Que: What type of agonistic behavior increased in Owl monkeys in test mating than in
    • family groups?
    • Ans: �arching� a hostile display, and �tail rubbing� a form of scent marking.
    • Ref: Laboratory Animal Medicine, 2nd Ed., 2002, p 689.
  95. Que: What type of pattern is seen in the plasma testosterone level in male Owl
    • monkeys in response to light and dark?
    • Ans: a circadian rhythm with peak levels occurring in the light period of the cycle
    • (resting period), and lowest levels during the dark (active period). These daily
    • changes in testosterone are the opposite of those of macaques and lemurs in
    • terms of light cycle, but the same in terms of activity cycles.
    • Ref: Laboratory Animal Medicine, 2nd Ed., 2002, p 689.
  96. Que: What is the proposed cause of partially arrested spermatogenesis described in
    • captive adult male Owl monkeys?
    • Ans: Vitamin E deficiency
    • Ref: Laboratory Animal Medicine, 2nd Ed., 2002, p 689.
  97. Que: What is the gestation period of Owl monkeys?
    • Ans: 133 days, reports as high as 148-159 days
    • Ref: Laboratory Animal Medicine, 2nd Ed., 2002, p 689.
  98. Que: What is the average interbirth period for female Owl monkeys?
    • Ans: average 253 days, and a range from 166 to 419 days.
    • Ref: Laboratory Animal Medicine, 2nd Ed., 2002, p 689.
  99. Que: What is the mean time from pairing to first parturition in Owl monkeys?
    • Ans: 14.6 �7.7 months, there is no postpartum estrus.
    • Ref: Laboratory Animal Medicine, 2nd Ed., 2002, p 689.
  100. Que: Unlike squirrel monkeys, what type of seasonality do captive Owl monkeys show
    in breeding and birthing?
  101. Ans: no seasonal breeding or birthing season
    Ref: Laboratory Animal Medicine, 2nd Ed., 2002, p 689.
  102. Que: What are the physical characteristics of infant Owl monkeys?
    • Ans: 90-105 gm at birth, well developed pelage except for the abdomen and inner
    • surface of the limbs. Most births are singletons, twinning rarely occurs.
    • Ref: Laboratory Animal Medicine, 2nd Ed., 2002, p 689.
  103. Que: What is the major resting position for the infant Owl monkey until it reaches 3-4
    • weeks of age?
    • Ans: ventrolateral clinging
    • Ref: Laboratory Animal Medicine, 2nd Ed., 2002, p 689.
  104. Que: After 3-4 weeks of age, what is the preferred resting position for infant Owl
    • monkeys?
    • Ans: Dorsal clinging
    • Ref: Laboratory Animal Medicine, 2nd Ed., 2002, p 689.
  105. Que: What age do infant Owl monkeys begin to get off their parents, and when do they
    • start eating solid foods?
    • Ans: 3-6 weeks of age and 35-60 days.
    • Ref: Laboratory Animal Medicine, 2nd Ed., 2002, p 689.
  106. Que: In Owl monkeys, both parents play a role in carrying and caring for their offspring,
    • what role does each sex play during the rearing of the infant?
    • Ans: For the first week, the female carries the infant most of the time. Thereafter, the
    • male carries the infant, and the infant transfers to its mother to nurse. Unlike
    • macaques, Owl monkeys rarely remain on the nipple except to nurse.
    • Ref: Laboratory Animal Medicine, 2nd Ed., 2002, p 689.
  107. Que. Patterns of carrying and rejection behavior are well noted in which species of nonhuman primates?
    • Ans. Aotus (owl monkeys) and Callithrix (marmosets)
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch.16, p690
  108. Que. At what age does the owl monkey infant move independently?
    • Ans. 18 weeks of age
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch.16, p690
  109. Que. What secondary reproductive structure is a useful indicator of pubertal development?
    • Ans. growth of the subcaudal scent-marking gland found at the base of the tail
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch.16, p690
  110. Que. Growth of the subcaudal scent-marking gland corresponds to increasing levels of what male hormone?
    • Ans. testosterone
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch.16, p690
  111. Que. Which parent (male or female) interacts more frequently and participates in grooming behavior with older offspring?
    • Ans. male parent
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch.16, p690
  112. Que. Which group of nonhuman primates�Old World or New World�have the best reproductive success?
    • Ans. Old World
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch.116 p690
  113. Que. Owl monkeys are _____________ neotropical primates which prefer temperature ranges of ___________.
    • Ans. nocturnal; 75-80�F
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch.16, p690
  114. Que. Which husbandry practice method has been found to be a better alternative to the daily hosing of cages?
    • Ans. use of disposable, absorptive fiberboard sheets
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch.16, p690
  115. Que. What can be placed over light fixtures to provide appropriate diminished lighting for owl monkeys?
    • Ans. red or gray filters
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch.16, p690
  116. Que. True or False??? A 14:10 light-dark cycle offset from the normal day is best used so that monkeys can be observed during the active �night� cycle .
    • Ans. False; 12:12
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch.16, p690
  117. que. True or False??? Nest-box and cage sanitation should occur simultaneously so that the owl monkey has a clean living environment.
    • Ans. False. �. . . should occur on alternate weeks� to provide stabilization of olfactory cues within the monkey�s environment.
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch.16, p690
  118. Que. What are the vitamin supplements required by Aotus spp.?
    • Ans. vitamin D3 and vitamin C
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch.16, p690
  119. Que. What type of diet is appropriate for owl monkeys?
    • Ans. New World monkey formulation
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch.16, p690
  120. Que. What type of diet results in a decreased incidence of diarrhea when fed to owl monkeys?
    • Ans. high-fiber diet formulations manufactured for OWPs
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch.16, p690
  121. Que. What owl monkey species is susceptible to vitamin E-responsive hemolytic anemia? What can be used to prevent this problem?
    • Ans. Northern Gray-necked owl monkey (Aortus trivirgatus) (karyotypes II, III, IV, V and VII); monthly injections of supplemental vitamin E
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch.16, p690
  122. Que. Under normal urine parameters in owl monkeys, what would the expected semiquantitative bilirubin value be?
    • Ans. a. 0
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch.16, p692
  123. Que. What is the adult owl monkey body weight range (including both males and females)?
    • Ans. 529-1281 grams
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch.16, p692
  124. Que. Owl monkeys are considered an excellent animal model for, and have been used extensively in the study of, what human disease?
    • Ans. malaria
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch.16, p692
  125. Que. True or False. The unique characteristics of the owl monkey eye have made it a valuable animal in vision research.
    • Ans. True
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch.16, p692
  126. Que. Squirrel monkeys belong to what genus?
    • Ans. Saimiri
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch.16, p692
  127. Que. Which genus of nonhuman primates is the most commonly used neotropical primates in biomedical research in the United States?
    • Ans. Saimiri
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch.16, p692
  128. Que. What is the mean body weight of an adult squirrel monkey?
    • Ans. less than 1 kg
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch.16, p692
  129. Que. True or False. Sexual dimorphism is observed in squirrel monkeys.
    • Ans. True. Although, sex differences are less distinct than in many Old World primates.
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch.16, p692
  130. Que. What is the average estrous cycle in female squirrel monkeys?
    • Ans. Females have a very short estrous cycle, averaging 9-10 days.
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch.16, p692
  131. Que. What is �fatting� in squirrel monkeys?
    • Ans. Males experience seasonal enlargement of testes concomitant with spermatogenesis and undergo �fatting� prior to breeding season. (Squirrel monkeys are seasonal breeders.)
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch.16, p692
  132. Que. Why are squirrel monkeys valuable models in molecular studies of the cortisol receptor?
    • Ans. They have circulating levels of free or unbound cortisol approximately 100 times greater than that found in humans or Old World primates.
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch.16, p692
  133. Que. Squirrel monkeys are a valuable model for atherosclerosis because the disease is naturally occurring. What can be done to potentiate this disease?
    • Ans. Can be potentiated by feeding dietary cholesterol.
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch.16, p692
  134. Que. The genus for squirrel monkeys is__________
    • Ans. Saimiri spp
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch. 16, p0693
  135. Que. Name the four species that the genus Saimiri contains.
    • Ans. S. sciureus, S. oerstedii, S. ustus, S. boliviensis
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch. 16, p0693
  136. Que. Based on phenotypic characteristics of hair above the eyes, the genus Saimiri can be divided into the following two groups, __________ and __________
    • Ans. Gothic arch and roman arch
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch. 16, p0693
  137. Que. True or False. Precise identification of squirrel monkeys requires both phenotypic and karyotypic examination.
    • Ans. True
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch. 16, p0693
  138. Que. True or False. Specific identification of squirrel monkeys to be used in a particular experiment is not critical since the species and subspecies do not vary in their susceptibility to both naturally occurring and experimentally induced diseases.
    • Ans. False
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch. 16, p0693
  139. Que. True or False. Interbreeding of the different species and subspecies of squirrel monkeys will not affect experiments or decrease reproductive efficiency
    • Ans. False
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch. 16, p0693
  140. Que. Squirrel monkeys are considered to be _______ and ________ in nature?
    • Ans. diurnal, arboreal.
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch.15, p694.
  141. Que. What is the behavioral term used to describe when infant squirrel monkeys are cared for by females other than their mothers?
    • Ans. Allomothering or aunting.
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch.15, p694.
  142. Que. Male squirrel monkeys do or do not participate in infant care?
    • Ans. Do not.
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch.15, p694.
  143. Que. Squirrel monkeys are considered to be ________ in their diets and have varied diets.
    • Ans. Omnivorous.
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch.15, p694.
  144. Que. Describe the breeding pattern of the squirrel, approximately how long and when is the breeding season, and how long is gestation?
    • Ans. Seasonal breeders; 3 months/Dec-Mar in Northern hemisphere; 150 days.
    • Ref. LAM 2d ed., Ch. 16, p. 695.
  145. Que. At what time of the year do squirrel monkey females cycle?
    • Ans. Throughout the year.
    • Ref. LAM 2d ed., Ch. 16, p. 695.
  146. Que. Describe the phenomenon known as �fatting� in squirrel monkey males?
    • Ans. Prior to the breeding season, breeding age males undergo rapid weight gain, which is distributed over the upper torso.
    • Ref. LAM 2d ed., Ch. 16, p. 695.
  147. Que. What are some ways to detect early pregnancy in squirrel monkey?
    • Ans. Detection of maintained serum levels of estradiol, progesterone, or squirrel monkey chorionic gonadotropin (SMG) can be used to ascertain early pregnancnies.
    • Ref. LAM 2d ed., Ch. 16, p. 695.
  148. Que. Squirrel monkeys need to be maintained in a warm laboratory environment (80 degress F). What characteristics of the squirrel monkey make this requirement necessary?
    • Ans. They have little body fat, a high metabolic rate, and a relatively large surface area.
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch. 16, p.696
  149. Que. What type of perching should be used for squirrel monkeys?
    • Ans. Thermoneutral perching (such as PVC pipe), preferably >3/4 inch in diameter
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch. 16, p.696
  150. Que. For the first 2-3 weeks of life, squirrel monkeys should be maintained at what temperature (degrees F)?
    • Ans. 85 F
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch. 16, p.696
  151. Que. At what time of day do normal squirrel monkey deliveries take place? How long does labor usually last?
    • Ans. 1) Night; 2) 1-2 hours
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch. 16, p.696
  152. Que. True or False? Squirrel monkeys are not social animals and should be housed in single pairs whenever possible.
    • Ans. False. They are social and when feasible, should be housed with compatible cohorts.
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch. 16, p.696
  153. Que: By___________ of age the NHP infant should be able to self-feed from a bottle, and at ________ of age it can be started on moistened monkey chow.
    • Ans: 3 � 4 weeks and one month respectively
    • Ref: LAM, 2nd ed., Ch16, p697
  154. Que: Healthy NHP infants are best reared by ______ or ________.
    • Ans: the dam or fostered to another monkey respectively.
    • Ref: LAM, 2nd ed., Ch16, p697
  155. Que: What should happen to NHP infants that cannot be fostered?
    • Ans: they should be socialized as soon as possible
    • Ref: LAM, 2nd ed., Ch16, p697
  156. Que: What can be used to socialize the infant?
    • Ans: Play times with other nursery infants or older, tolerant, nonreproductive female can be used to socialize the infant.
    • Ref: LAM, 2nd ed., Ch16, p697
  157. Que: Do squirrel monkey adapt well to commercial monkey diets?
    • Ans: Yes
    • Ref: LAM, 2nd ed., Ch16, p697
  158. Que: Why do squirrel monkeys require a diet of high caloric density?
    • Ans: They have a high basal metabolic rate and a gastrointestinal tract that is short compared to other monkeys.
    • Ref: LAM, 2nd ed., Ch16, p697
  159. Que: Why should feed always be present in the cages of squirrel monkeys?
    • Ans: They are susceptible to hypoglycemia
    • Ref: LAM, 2nd ed., Ch16, p697
  160. Que: What vitamins are essential dietary requirements for squirrel monkeys?
    • Ans: Vitamin D and Vitamin C
    • Ref: LAM, 2nd ed., Ch16, p697
  161. Que: How much Vitamin D3 is sufficient to prevent the development of rickets?
    • Ans: 1 IU/gm diet of Vitamin D3
    • Ref: LAM, 2nd ed., Ch16, p697
  162. Que: What is the dosage in body weight per day sufficient to correct signs of scurvy in squirrel monkeys?
    • Ans: 10 mg/kg BW
    • Ref: LAM, 2nd ed., Ch16, p697
  163. Que: Squirrel monkeys have a high dietary requirement for folic acid that is approximately ________ per day.
    • Ans: 200�g
    • Ref: LAM, 2nd ed., Ch16, p697
  164. Que: What has been associated with folic aced deficiency in pregnant squirrel monkeys?
    • Ans: 1) Megablastic anemia
    • 2) Low-birth weight infants
    • 3) Stillbirths
    • Ref: LAM, 2nd ed., Ch16, p697
  165. Que: Squirrel monkeys have a relatively small mean corpuscular volume of ______.
    • Ans: 60�m3.
    • Ref: LAM, 2nd ed., Ch16, p697
  166. Que: From 1995 through 1998, what medical discipline has yielded the most publications in scientific literature?
    • Ans: neuroscience, including studies of central nervous system, behavior/learning, and perception.
    • Ref: LAM, 2nd ed., Ch16, p697
  167. Que: Squirrel monkeys are frequently used in what types of research?
    • Ans: infectious disease, genetics, pharmacology, and toxicology.
    • Ref: LAM, 2nd ed., Ch16, p697
  168. Que: What monkey has been shown to be a superior model for studies of the pathogenesis of Plasmodium falciparum Indochina I, developing signs similar to those reported in human disease?
    • Ans: squirrel monkey
    • Ref: LAM, 2nd ed., Ch16, p697
  169. Que: What types of squirrel monkeys are susceptible to P. vivax but respond differently depending on the strain of parasite used?
    • Ans: Bolivian, Peruvian, and Guyanese squirrel monkeys.
    • Ref: LAM, 2nd ed., Ch16, p697
  170. Que. For many years, the squirrel monkey has been recognized as one of the most susceptible nonhuman primate species to experimental infection with __________ and other transmissible spongiform encephalopathies.
    • Ans. Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD)
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch.16, p 698
  171. Que. The susceptibility of squirrel monkeys to experimental CJD infection is believed to be genetic; the squirrel monkey ______ gene sequence is 93.8% homologous to the human _____ sequence, which is associated with increased susceptibility to infection in human beings.
    • Ans. PrP, PrP
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch.16, p 698
  172. Que. The squirrel monkey has been evaluated as a model for human labor and delivery and for POP or _______. POP afflicts older women and it is associated with increased ______, with large _____ and with ________ changes. POP is squirrel monkeys have a similar etiology.
    • Ans. pelvic organ prolaspe, parity, infants, hormonal
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch.16, p 698
  173. Que. The rhesus monkey, ____ ______ is among the least threatened and most biologically diverse monkeys in the world.
    • Ans. Macaca mulatta
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch.16, p 698
  174. Que. Rhesus monkeys have a total of _____ teeth with a dental formula of 2-1-2-3.
    Ans. 32
  175. Que. SIV simian immunodeficiency virus makes the Rhesus monkey an excellent model for __________ vaccine research and development.
    Ans. HIV
  176. Que. What is the diploid number for Rhesus monkeys?
    Ans. 42
  177. Que. What is the most common threat behavior in Rhesus monkeys?
    Ans. Wide-open mouth with staring eyes
  178. Que. Rhesus monkeys are _________ breeders.
    Ans. seasonal
  179. Que. What is the menstrual cycle and estrous period for Rhesus?
    Ans. 28 days, mean 9.2 days
  180. Que. Sexual maturity is achieved at what age in male Rhesus monkeys?
    • Ans. 38 months of age
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch., p699
  181. Que. Which macaque is threatened with extinction (CITES Appendix I)?
    • Ans. M. silenus � Lion-tailed macaque from India
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch. 16, p 700
  182. Que. Extended isolated housing can result in detrimental _______ behaviors (rocking, self-inflicted trauma, and self-clutching) and should be avoided.
    • Ans. Repetitive
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch. 16 p. 701
  183. Que. In the wild, rhesus monkeys are mainly _______ in regards to diet.
    • Ans. Frugivorous
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch. 16 p. 701
  184. Que. Maintenance rations of ____ protein are adequate for both young growing rhesus monkeys and adults.
    • Ans. 15%
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch. 16 p. 701
  185. Que. It is still recommended that the commercial monkey diet be used within ____ days of being manufactured.
    • Ans. 90
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch. 16 p. 701
  186. Que. In 1937, rhesus monkeys contributed to the identification of the red blood cell __ _____.
    • Ans. Rh factor
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch. 16 p. 701
  187. Que. Rhesus monkeys are currently the models of choice for ______ vaccine development and study.
    • Ans. HIV/AIDS
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch. 16 p. 701
  188. Que. What is the genus and species of the cynomolgus monkey?
    • Ans. Macaca fascicularis
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch. 16, p703
  189. Que. Does the cynomolgus monkey have a prehensile tail?
    • Ans. no, has a nonprehensile tail
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch. 16, p703
  190. Que. Is the cynomolgus monkey smaller than the rhesus monkey?
    • Ans. yes
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch. 16, p703
  191. Que. What is the weight range for the adult female cynomolgus monkey?
    • Ans. 2.5 to 5.7 kg
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch. 16, p703
  192. Que. What is the weight range for the adult male cynomolgus monkey?
    • Ans. 4.7 to 8.3 kg
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch. 16, p703
  193. Que. How many teeth do cynomolgus monkey have?
    • Ans. 32 teeth
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch. 16, p703
  194. Que. Do cynomolgus monkeys have cheek pouches?
    • Ans. yes
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch. 16, p703
  195. Que. Which finger has true opposability in the cynomolgus monkey?
    • Ans. thumb
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch. 16, p703
  196. Que. What are considered the largest Old World nonhuman primates?
    • Ans. Baboons
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch 16, P706
  197. Que. What makes baboons an excellent model for vaccine development?
    • Ans. An immune system similar to that of humans in that they have the same immunoglobulin G subclasses: 1,2,3, and 4.
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch 16, P706
  198. Que. Of the five species of baboon, four are considered savannah baboons and one is a desert baboon. Name the five species of baboon and identify the desert species.
    • Ans. Papio anubis, P. cynocephalus, P. papio, P. ursinus, P. hamadryas; P. hamadryas is the desert baboon
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch 16, P706
  199. Que: Several clans, one-male units, and single males come together to form a stable social unit called the _______.
    • Ans: band
    • Ref: LAM, 2nd ed., Ch16, p707
  200. Que: In baboons, female bonds are strongest in what type of social group?
    • Ans: band
    • Ref: LAM, 2nd ed., Ch16, p707
  201. Que: ________ consist of several bands that come together at sleeping sites or spots of limited resources such as water holes.
    • Ans: Troops
    • Ref: LAM, 2nd ed., Ch16, p707
  202. Que: Baboons lack birth _________ in the wild and in captivity.
    • Ans: seasonality
    • Ref: LAM, 2nd ed., Ch16, p707
  203. Que: In baboons, sexual maturity generally occurs at ________ of age for females.
    • Ans: 4-5 years
    • Ref: LAM, 2nd ed., Ch16, p707
  204. Que: In baboons, sexual maturity generally occurs at ________ of age for males.
    • Ans: 4-7 years
    • Ref: LAM, 2nd ed., Ch16, p707
  205. Que: In baboons, gestation averages _________ months.
    • Ans: 6 months
    • Ref: LAM, 2nd ed., Ch16, p707
  206. Que: Females that experience abortions, stillbirths, and neonatal deaths have shorter ________ _________ than those that have surviving live births.
    • Ans: interbirth intervals.
    • Ref: LAM, 2nd ed., Ch16, p707
  207. Que: Baboons have lactational __________.
    • Ans: amenorrhea
    • Ref: LAM, 2nd ed., Ch16, p707
  208. Que: Are female baboon capable of breeding continuously throughout the year?
    • Ans: yes
    • Ref: LAM, 2nd ed., Ch16, p707
  209. Que: What is prominent in female baboons that allow assessment of both their ovarian function and their pregnancy status with relative ease?
    • Ans: perineal sex skin
    • Ref: LAM, 2nd ed., Ch16, p707
  210. Que: What is associated with the selling and color change of the sex skin in baboons?
    • Ans: menstrual cycle
    • Ref: LAM, 2nd ed., Ch16, p707
  211. Que: In baboons, the initial turgescence or swelling takes an average of _______.
    • Ans: 4 days
    • Ref: LAM, 2nd ed., Ch16, p707
  212. Que: In baboons what is what signs follow initial turgescence of sex skin?
    • Ans: increasing edematous distension until the sexual skin has no wrinkles and develops an intense red color.
    • Ref: LAM, 2nd ed., Ch16, p707
  213. Que: How long does the turgescence usually last depending on the species of baboon?
    • Ans: 13-21 days
    • Ref: LAM, 2nd ed., Ch16, p707
  214. Que: What is maximum turgescence associated with in baboons?
    • Ans: hormonal changes that occur with ovulation.
    • Ref: LAM, 2nd ed., Ch16, p707
  215. Que: What is initial deturgescence characterized as in baboons?
    • Ans: 1) loss of color
    • 2) decreased swelling
    • 3) increase in wrinkles in the perineum
    • Ref: LAM, 2nd ed., Ch16, p707
  216. Que: A quiescent stage of about _______ days follows in which sexual skin has many wrinkles, a dull surface and little color.
    • Ans: 12 days
    • Ref: LAM, 2nd ed., Ch16, p707
  217. Que: How long is the length of the menstrual cycle or intermenstrual interval in baboons?
    • Ans: it varies among species, between individuals of each species, and with the age of the individual.
    • Ref: LAM, 2nd ed., Ch16, p707
  218. Que: Which species of baboons was reported to have the shortest intermenstrual interval and how long was it?
    • Ans: Captive Papio papio; intermenstrual interval 29.8 � 4.1 days
    • Ref: LAM, 2nd ed., Ch16, p707
  219. Que: Which species of baboons was reported to have the longest intermenstrual interval and how long was it?
    • Ans: Feral P. anubis; 40.1 � 6.9 days
    • Ref: LAM, 2nd ed., Ch16, p707
  220. Que: What was the intermenstrual cycle length and average cycle length reported in the P. hamadryas species?
    • Ans: 1) over 10 years = 39 days average intermenstrual cycle length.
    • 2) 5 to 10 years = 34 day average cycle length
    • Ref: LAM, 2nd ed., Ch16, p707
  221. Que: Ovarian cyclicity can be determined by monitoring what things in baboons?
    • Ans: 1) menses
    • 2) cyclic changes in sex skin
    • 3) hormone determinations of blood, urine or feces.
  222. Que: Several clans, one-male units, and single males come together to form a stable social unit called the _______.
    • Ans: band
    • Ref: LAM, 2nd ed., Ch16, p707
  223. Que: In baboons, female bonds are strongest in what type of social group?
    • Ans: band
    • Ref: LAM, 2nd ed., Ch16, p707
  224. Que: ________ consist of several bands that come together at sleeping sites or spots of limited resources such as water holes.
    • Ans: Troops
    • Ref: LAM, 2nd ed., Ch16, p707
  225. Que: Baboons lack birth _________ in the wild and in captivity.
    • Ans: seasonality
    • Ref: LAM, 2nd ed., Ch16, p707
  226. Que: In baboons, sexual maturity generally occurs at ________ of age for females.
    • Ans: 4-5 years
    • Ref: LAM, 2nd ed., Ch16, p707
  227. Que: In baboons, sexual maturity generally occurs at ________ of age for males.
    • Ans: 4-7 years
    • Ref: LAM, 2nd ed., Ch16, p707
  228. Que: In baboons, gestation averages _________ months.
    • Ans: 6 months
    • Ref: LAM, 2nd ed., Ch16, p707
  229. Que: Females that experience abortions, stillbirths, and neonatal deaths have shorter ________ _________ than those that have surviving live births.
    • Ans: interbirth intervals.
    • Ref: LAM, 2nd ed., Ch16, p707
  230. Que: Baboons have lactational __________.
    • Ans: amenorrhea
    • Ref: LAM, 2nd ed., Ch16, p707
  231. Que: Are female baboon capable of breeding continuously throughout the year?
    • Ans: yes
    • Ref: LAM, 2nd ed., Ch16, p707
  232. Que: What is prominent in female baboons that allow assessment of both their ovarian function and their pregnancy status with relative ease?
    • Ans: perineal sex skin
    • Ref: LAM, 2nd ed., Ch16, p707
  233. Que: What is associated with the selling and color change of the sex skin in baboons?
    • Ans: menstrual cycle
    • Ref: LAM, 2nd ed., Ch16, p707
  234. Que: In baboons, the initial turgescence or swelling takes an average of _______.
    • Ans: 4 days
    • Ref: LAM, 2nd ed., Ch16, p707
  235. Que: In baboons what is what signs follow initial turgescence of sex skin?
    • Ans: increasing edematous distension until the sexual skin has no wrinkles and develops an intense red color.
    • Ref: LAM, 2nd ed., Ch16, p707
  236. Que: How long does the turgescence usually last depending on the species of baboon?
    • Ans: 13-21 days
    • Ref: LAM, 2nd ed., Ch16, p707
  237. Que: What is maximum turgescence associated with in baboons?
    • Ans: hormonal changes that occur with ovulation.
    • Ref: LAM, 2nd ed., Ch16, p707
  238. Que: What is initial deturgescence characterized as in baboons?
    • Ans: 1) loss of color
    • 2) decreased swelling
    • 3) increase in wrinkles in the perineum
    • Ref: LAM, 2nd ed., Ch16, p707
  239. Que: A quiescent stage of about _______ days follows in which sexual skin has many wrinkles, a dull surface and little color.
    • Ans: 12 days
    • Ref: LAM, 2nd ed., Ch16, p707
  240. Que: How long is the length of the menstrual cycle or intermenstrual interval in baboons?
    • Ans: it varies among species, between individuals of each species, and with the age of the individual.
    • Ref: LAM, 2nd ed., Ch16, p707
  241. Que: Which species of baboons was reported to have the shortest intermenstrual interval and how long was it?
    • Ans: Captive Papio papio; intermenstrual interval 29.8 � 4.1 days
    • Ref: LAM, 2nd ed., Ch16, p707
  242. Que: Which species of baboons was reported to have the longest intermenstrual interval and how long was it?
    • Ans: Feral P. anubis; 40.1 � 6.9 days
    • Ref: LAM, 2nd ed., Ch16, p707
  243. Que: What was the intermenstrual cycle length and average cycle length reported in the P. hamadryas species?
    • Ans: 1) over 10 years = 39 days average intermenstrual cycle length.
    • 2) 5 to 10 years = 34 day average cycle length
    • Ref: LAM, 2nd ed., Ch16, p707
  244. Que: Ovarian cyclicity can be determined by monitoring what things in baboons?
    • Ans: 1) menses
    • 2) cyclic changes in sex skin
    • 3) hormone determinations of blood, urine or feces.
  245. Que. When monitoring ovarian cyclicity in singly housed female baboons, list the ways in which menses may be followed.
    • Ans. By visual examination of the external genitalia for fresh blood or by use of vaginal swabs (obtain smears, look for blood).
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd Ed., Ch. 16, p. 708
  246. Que. True or false: when monitoring ovarian cyclicity in female baboons, visual examination for blood is the most accurate method.
    • Ans. False; it is the least accurate
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd Ed., Ch. 16, p. 708
  247. Que. Obtaining daily vaginal swabs is the preferred method to monitor cycling in female baboons. This method will detect menstruation in approximately __________ % of cycles.
    • Ans. 95
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd Ed., Ch. 16, p. 708
  248. Que. True or false: recording daily changes in the sex skin of the female baboon is a very accurate method of following the ovarian cycle.
    • Ans. True
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd Ed., Ch. 16, p. 708
  249. Que. In the female baboon, ovulation usually occurs on day __________ before deturgescence; the __________ day prior to deturgescence is the optimal day for mating.
    • Ans. 1-2; third
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd Ed., Ch. 16, p. 708
  250. Que. What method will provide a precise date for ovulation in the female baboon?
    • Ans. Daily blood or urine collection for hormone determinations by enzyme immunoassay (EIA) of radio immunoassay (RIA). This is more time-consuming and expensive, though.
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd Ed., Ch. 16, p. 708
  251. Que. True or false: for evaluation of hormones related to ovarian cycling in the female baboon, fecal samples may be used.
    • Ans. True; this is done for monitoring baboon troops in the wild.
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd Ed., Ch. 16, p. 708
  252. Que. In the female baboon, how early in gestation may pregnancy be determined by 1) plasma or urine chorionic gonadotropin, 2) by ultrasound, and 3) by bimanual palpation?
    • Ans. 1) Day 15-18; 2) 18-21; 3) 20-21
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd Ed., Ch. 16, p. 708
  253. Que. What is the range of days for gestation in the baboon?
    • Ans. 164-186 days
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd Ed., Ch. 16, p. 708
  254. Que. True or false: alloparenting is a prominent feature of offspring-rearing in baboons.
    • Ans. False; on occasion, adult male hamadryas baboons have fostered infants if the dam has died.
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd Ed., Ch. 16, p. 708
  255. Que. At what age are infant baboons weaned?
    • Ans. 6 months
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd Ed., Ch. 16, p. 708
  256. Que. True or false: harem breeding is largely unsuccessful in groups of baboons.
    • Ans. False; harem breeding has been successful in groups consisting of 1-2 adult males with 20-25 adult females.
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd Ed., Ch. 16, p. 708
  257. Que. How are Hamadryas baboons best housed in a research setting? What is the significance of this grouping in the wild?
    • Ans. single male-multifemale groups; similar to social structure in the wild
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch.16, p710
  258. Que. What is the best housing setting for large-scale breeding of savanna baboons?
    • Ans. corrals
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch.16, p710
  259. Que. During which months of the year does the birth number peak for baboons?
    • Ans. June to Dec
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch.16, p710
  260. Que. Name four items which predominate in the diet of baboons living in the wild.
    • Ans. seeds, roots, tubers, leaves, bulbs, flowers and fruit
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch.16, p710
  261. Que. In captive baboons, what is the minimum % of protein, fat, and fiber in a readily accepted commercial diet?
    • Ans. Protein-15%; fat-4%; fiber-5%.
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch.16, p0711
  262. Que. What is the % of genetic similarity between baboons and humans?
    • Ans. 89%.
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch.16, p0711
  263. Que. List some conditions for which the baboon is used as a model.
    • Ans. coronary heart disease ; chronic lung diseases; atherosclerosis; hypertension; osteoporosis; human spinal disorders; reproductive physiology; vaccine development for HIV, Hepatitis C and respiratory syncytial virus; and neonatal research.
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch.16, p0711
  264. Que. What is the family for chimpanzees.
    • Ans. Pongidae
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch.16, p0711
  265. Que. List the dental formula for the chimpanzee.
    • Ans. 2-1-2-3 = 32.
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch.16, p0711
  266. Que. What type of locomotion does the chimpanzee use.
    • Ans. quadrupedal walk interspersed with brachiating and standing upright.
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch.16, p0711
  267. Que. Where do chimpanzees spend most of their time.
    • Ans. arboreal (50-75% of their time).
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch.16, p0711
  268. Que. What is the largest species of nonhuman primate currently used in biomedical research.
    • Ans. chimpanzee (the only great ape that continues to make significant contributions to improving human health and welfare).
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch.16, p0711
  269. Que. What is the birth weight and adult weight of a chimpanzee?
    • Ans. birth: 1.5-2.0kg and adult: 40-70kg
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch.16, p0711
  270. Que. What are the five distinct life phases that chimpanzees pass through during their lifetime?
    • Ans. infant, juvenile, adolescent, sexually mature adult, and aged adult
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch.16, p712
  271. Que. What are the two species of chimpanzees?
    • Ans. Pan troglodytes and Pan paniscus
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch.16, p712
  272. Que. Which chimpanzee species is traditionally known as the �common chimpanzee�?
    • Ans. Pan troglodytes
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch.16, p712
  273. Que. What is the normal diploid number for the chimpanzee?
    • Ans. d. 48
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch.16, p712
  274. Que. The abbreviation ISIS stands for what?
    • Ans. The International Species Information System
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch.16, p712
  275. Que. What are the common names of the three chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) subspecies?
    • Ans. Eastern, Central, and Western Chimpanzees
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch.16, p712
  276. Que. What is the common name for the species Pan paniscus?
    • Ans. bonobo
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch.16, p712
  277. Que. No individual brought more knowledge and understanding of the chimpanzee to the public and the research community than __________.
    • Ans. Jane Goodall
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch. 16, p0713
  278. Que.Puberty in the female chimpanzee occurs __________ years before menarche and is usually seen at about __________ of age.
    • Ans. 1-1/2, eight
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch. 16, p0713
  279. Que. Ovulation occurs _______days before detumescence of the anogenital tissue.
    • Ans. 1 to 6
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch. 16, p0713
  280. Que. Gestation in a chimpanzee is approximately __________ months long
    • Ans. 71/2 to 8
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch. 16, p0713
  281. Que. True or False. Human pregnancy kits are dependable in chimpanzees.
    • Ans. True
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch. 16, p0713
  282. Que. Male chimpanzees reach puberty at about __________ years of age.
    • Ans. Seven
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch. 16, p0713
  283. Que. True or False. The captive chimpanzee population is managed as a national resource.
    • Ans. True
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch. 16, p0713
  284. Que. True or False. The preferred housing management for chimpanzees is compatible, multimale social groups maintained in outdoor enclosures that have accessible shelters for protection from temperature extremes.
    • Ans. True
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch. 16, p0713
  285. Que. True or False. Females should be always be allowed to rear their young for a minimum of 2 years, unless the infant�s survival is at risk.
    • Ans. True
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch. 16, p0713
  286. Que. List some infectious diseases for which the chimpanzee is considered a valuable model, or the only model?
    • Ans. Hepatitis A,B,C; respiratory syncytial virus, HIV, malaria
    • Ref. LAM 2d ed., Ch. 16, p. 715.
  287. Que. How does the chimpanzee genome compare to that of humans (% similarity)?
    • Ans. 98% identical to that of humans.
    • Ref. LAM 2d ed., Ch. 16, p. 715.
  288. Que. What legislation made the most sweeping changes to animal housing and first substantially incorporated requirements for promotion of psychological well-being of NHPs?
    • Ans. 1985 amendment to the Animal Welfare Act (Public Law 99-198).
    • Ref. LAM 2d ed., Ch. 16, p. 715.
  289. Que. The 1996 �Guide� included a major new consideration for housing nonhuman primates. What was it?
    • Ans. It recommended social interaction and hierarchical development both within and between enclosures in order to improve the animal�s psychological well-being.
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch. 16, p716
  290. Que. When considering optimal cage measurements, how does the �Guide� differ from current Animal Welfare requirements?
    • Ans. The �Guide� states that optimal cage measurements should not be based solely on floor space (engineering standards).
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch. 16, p716
  291. Que. What are ideal cage materials for nonhuman primates?
    • Ans. Galvanized metal, stainless steel, aluminum, and plastics
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch. 16, p716
  292. Que. What do marmosets, tamarins, and owl monkeys specifically need as a part of their housing?
    • Ans. Nesting boxes
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch. 16, p716
  293. Que: Poor cage design and construction can result in what in primates?
    • Ans: hazards to the primate occupants
    • Ref: LAM, 2nd ed., Ch16, p717
  294. Que: Personnel involved in developing, implementing, and evaluating an enrichment plan must have what qualifications?
    • Ans: the knowledge, skills and experience with nonhuman primates.
    • Ref: LAM, 2nd ed., Ch16, p717
  295. Que: Species-specific ________, ________, and _______ can be used to create an environment conducive to normal health and expression of species-typical behaviors.
    • Ans: structures, devices and foodstuff.
    • Ref: LAM, 2nd ed., Ch16, p717
  296. Que: What types of enrichment devices stimulate normal physiologic development?
    • Ans: playscapes and structures for climbing
    • Ref: LAM, 2nd ed., Ch16, p717
  297. Que: What types of enrichment devices allow lower-ranking animals to escape from aggressive encounters reducing stress and trauma?
    • Ans: sight barriers such as crates and barrels
    • Ref: LAM, 2nd ed., Ch16, p717
  298. Que: What types of enrichment devices provide diversion and alleviate boredom?
    • Ans: sticks, balls, chew toys, and other play items.
    • Ref: LAM, 2nd ed., Ch16, p707
  299. Que: Primates can forage as in nature if seeds, grains, fruits, vegetables, or other foods are distributed in what?
    • Ans: a variety of substrates (hay, straw, AstroTurf) or presented in a puzzle feeder.
    • Ref: LAM, 2nd ed., Ch16, p707
  300. Que: What publication is an overview of the principles and recommendations concerning a quality nonhuman primate enrichment program?
    • Ans: the 1998 National Research Council publication �The Psychological Well-Being of Nonhuman Primates� (ILAR, 1998).
    • Ref: LAM, 2nd ed., Ch16, p707
  301. Que: What was assessed by the publication committee about nonhuman primate enrichment?
    • Ans: 1) evaluation of environmental variables that is most influential in affecting the well-being of nonhuman primates.
    • 2) evaluation of behavioral and physiological measures that are objective indices of the effects of these environmental variables.
    • 3) produced recommendations and procedures for use by institutions in developing plans consistent with federal law.
    • 4) Suggested priorities for future research into the psychological well being of nonhuman primates.
    • Ref: LAM, 2nd ed., Ch16, p717
  302. Que: A plan to enhance the psychological well being of nonhuman primates should have what elements?
    • Ans: 1) Appropriate social companionship
    • 2) Opportunities to engage in behavior related foraging, exploration and other activities appropriate to the species, age, sex and condition of the animal.
    • 3) Housing that permits suitable postural and locomotor expression.
    • 4) Freedom from unnecessary pain and distress.
    • Ref: LAM, 2nd ed., Ch16, p717
  303. Que: Once an enrichment plan is developed and implemented, what criteria need an assessment of the animal�s response?
    • Ans: 1) The animal�s ability to cope effectively.
    • 2) The animal�s ability to engage in species-typical activities
    • 3) The absence of maladaptive or pathological behavior
    • 4) The presence of balanced temperament and absence of chronic signs of distress.
    • Ref: LAM, 2nd ed., Ch16, p717
  304. Que. Safe and effective restraint improved the quality of research data by avoiding the altered physiological parameters prompted b stress-associated increases in ______, _____ and ________.
    • Ans. cortisone, growth hormone, glucagon
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch.16, p 718
  305. Que. The 1997 death of a regional primate center research technician after accidental ocular-splash exposure to ________ has heightened the research community�s awareness of the risks associated with nonhuman primates.
    • Ans. cercopithecine herpesvirus 1
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch.16, p 718
  306. Que. _______ cages are the most commonly used and effective method of restraint of the Old World species and chimpanzees.
    • Ans. restraint
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch.16, p 718
  307. Que. Generally hand capture with gloves can be performed on nonhuman primates that are not larger than a young ______ monkey. The initial use of gloves can be traumatic for the animal; hence there should be efforts to _______ the animal to the gloves. It is important that these gloves extend above the _______. When using gloved restraint, nonhuman primates weighing greater than _____ kg should have their arms pinned behind their back for added security.
    • Ans. rhesus, precondition, elbow, 1
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch.16, p 718
  308. Que. _________ is very useful when capturing escaped animals or retrieving individual animals that are housed in social groups.
    Ans. Netting
  309. Que. A variation of the pole and collar method is the collar and ______ method.
    Ans. Chain
  310. Que. What is the disadvantage of the tether and vest restraint method?
    Ans. Increase in personnel and resources needed to develop and maintain the system throughout the experiment.
  311. Que. What type of device is used for chemical restraint of a NHP greater than 20 meters away?
    Ans. CO2 powered rifles or pistols
  312. Que. _________ syringes can be used effectively in NHP at distances up to 2 meters.
    Ans. Pole
  313. Que. What is the most commonly used drugs for NHP restraint?
    • Ans. Ketamine hydrochloride 10 mg/kg
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch., p719
  314. Que. Isoflurane has less catacholamine-sensitizing and cardiodepressive properties than halothane, making it safe for what two disease-type patients?
    • Ans. Hepatic and renal
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch. 16, p 720
  315. Que. For an effective biosafety program, what must be performed to determine preventive measures to counteract infectious agents within the environment?
    • Ans. A risk assessment
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch. 16, p 720
  316. Que. _______ containment is the protection of personnel and the environment from infectious agents through good laboratory practices and safety equipment.
    • Ans. Primary
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch. 16 p. 721
  317. Que. _______ containment is the protection of the environment outside the laboratory and is accomplished through a combination of facility design and operational procedures.
    • Ans. Secondary
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch. 16 p. 721
  318. Que. _______ is defined as the removal of dirt and waste products, while ______ is the reduction or elimination of pathogenic microorganisms.
    • Ans. Cleaning, disinfection
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch. 16 p. 721
  319. Que. Captive nonhuman primates should be protected from temperature extremes of less then _____� F and greater then _____�F for more than ____ consecutive hours.
    • Ans. less then 45� F and great then 85�F for more than 4 consecutive hours
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch. 16, p723
  320. Que. What is the recommended environmental temperate range for housing nonhuman primates?
    • Ans. 64 to 84 �F.
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch. 16, p723
  321. Que. What is the recommended nonrecirculated ventilation rate of air changes per hour for nonhuman primates?
    • Ans. 10 to 15 air changes per hr
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch. 16, p723
  322. Que. What is the recommended relative humidity for most nonhuman primates?
    • Ans. 30 to 70 % humidity
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch. 16, p723
  323. Que. What is the recommended relative humidity for callithrichidae?
    • Ans. 50 % humidity
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch. 16, p723
  324. Que. What light and dark diurnal cycle is sufficient for most nonhuman primates?
    • Ans. 12 hr light-12 hr dark
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch. 16, p723
  325. Que. What special considerations should be taken for the diurnal cycle of owl monkeys and how can they be monitored and handled during their active phase?
    • Ans. they are nocturnal and require 12 hr dark-12 hr light cycle; red or gray filters over the light fixtures during their active phase assists with performing observations and husbandry duties
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch. 16, p723
  326. Que. What methods are used to identify individual nonhuman primates?
    • Ans. tattooing, collars with ID tags, microtransponders
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch. 16, p723
  327. Que. The most common site for venipuncture in the nonhuman primate is the __________.
    • Ans. femoral vein
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch. 16, p. 727
  328. Que. Besides the femoral vein, alternative sites that can be used for blood collection in the nonhuman primate include the __________ and __________ veins.
    • Ans. saphenous and cephalic
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch. 16, p. 727
  329. Que. Regarding a safe, maximum amount of blood to be collected from a nonhuman primate: the maximal blood sample size is 10% of a blood volume estimated to be 10% of the body weight is known as the ______________ rule.
    • Ans. 10% - 10% rule
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch. 16, p. 727
  330. Que. True or false: in the research setting, NHPs may be trained to allow voluntary hypodermic injection, urine collection, and venipuncture.
    • Ans. True
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd Ed., Ch. 16, p. 728
  331. Que. What size French catheter may be used to catheterize cynomolgous monkeys for urine collection?
    • Ans. 7.0 to 9.0 Fr
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd Ed., Ch. 16, p. 728
  332. Que. What size French catheter may be used to catheterize Rhesus monkeys for urine collection?
    • Ans. 3.5 to 4.0 Fr
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd Ed., Ch. 16, p. 728
  333. Que. What sites are recommended for collection of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in the research NHP?
    • Ans. Cisterna magna or lumbar area
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd Ed., Ch. 16, p. 728
  334. Que. Compared to the cisterna magna, the CSF from the lumbar region of the NHP will show higher concentrations of which components?
    • Ans. Total protein, albumin, and IgG
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd Ed., Ch. 16, p. 728
  335. Que. Compared to the cisterna magna, the CSF from the lumbar region of the NHP will show lower concentrations of which components?
    • Ans. Glucose and potassium
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd Ed., Ch. 16, p. 728
  336. Que. When collecting CSF from the cisterna magna in smaller NHPs, what additional technique may be used to help establish CSF flow?
    • Ans. Once the needle is in place, a slight rotation of the needle while applying pressure to the carotid arteries will sometimes establish CSF flow.
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd Ed., Ch. 16, p. 728
  337. Que: What type of biopsy is used to collect the entire lesion?
    • Ans: an excisional biopsy
    • Ref: Laboratory Animal Medicine, 2nd Ed., 2002, p 729.
  338. Que: What type of biopsy is used to collect only a portion of the lesion?
    • Ans: an incisional biopsy
    • Ref: Laboratory Animal Medicine, 2nd Ed., 2002, p 729.
  339. Que: What type of anesthesia should these biopsies be performed under?
    • Ans: general anesthesia
    • Ref: Laboratory Animal Medicine, 2nd Ed., 2002, p 729.
  340. Que: What are the indications for a lymph node biopsy?
    • Ans: lymph node enlargement, generalized lymphadenopathy, or suspicion of tumor
    • metastasis.
    • Ref: Laboratory Animal Medicine, 2nd Ed., 2002, p 729.
  341. Que: What are the methods in which a lymph node sample is collected?
    • Ans: needle aspiration, punch biopsy, and excisional biopsy.
    • Ref: Laboratory Animal Medicine, 2nd Ed., 2002, p 729.
  342. Que: What are the most accessible lymph nodes in nonhuman primates?
    • Ans: axillary and superficial inguinal nodes.
    • Ref: Laboratory Animal Medicine, 2nd Ed., 2002, p 729.
  343. Que: During exploratory surgery, excisional biopsies are most frequently done on
    • which lymph nodes?
    • Ans: mesenteric and iliac
    • Ref: Laboratory Animal Medicine, 2nd Ed., 2002, p 729.
  344. Que: What is the most common technique used to collect bone marrow samples in
    • nonhuman primates?
    • Ans: needle aspiration
    • Ref: Laboratory Animal Medicine, 2nd Ed., 2002, p 729.
  345. Que: What is the preferred site of needle aspiration for a bone marrow sample in
    • nonhuman primates?
    • Ans: iliac crest
    • Ref: Laboratory Animal Medicine, 2nd Ed., 2002, p 729.
  346. Que: What other sites can be used to collect a bone marrow sample?
    • Ans: trochanter of femur, tibial tuberosity, greater tubercle of the proximal humerus,
    • sternum, rib, and ischial tuberosity.
    • Ref: Laboratory Animal Medicine, 2nd Ed., 2002, p 729.
  347. Que: What posture should the nonhuman primate be positioned in order to be of
    • greatest diagnostic value for thoracic radiographs?
    • Ans: upright posture
    • Ref: Laboratory Animal Medicine, 2nd Ed., 2002, p 729.
  348. Que: When taking abdominal radiographs of nonhuman primates, what technique
    • increases the diagnostic effectiveness?
    • Ans: pneumoperitonography
    • Ref: Laboratory Animal Medicine, 2nd Ed., 2002, p 729.
  349. Que: What are the morphological characteristics deteced by fetal ultrasound that have
    • been determined for the rhesus monkey, baboon, and chimpanzee?
    • Ans: crown-rump length, biparietal diameter, head circumference, and femur length.
    • (longitudinal growth curves established for these species can be used to predict
    • estimated parturition dates).
    • Ref: Laboratory Animal Medicine, 2nd Ed., 2002, p 729.
  350. Que: What MHz transducer is adequate for most areas scanned?
    • Ans: 3.0 to 7.5 MHz transducer
    • Ref: Laboratory Animal Medicine, 2nd Ed., 2002, p 729.
  351. Que: What MHz transducer does most ocular ultrasonography require?
    • Ans: 10.0 MHz transducer
    • Ref: Laboratory Animal Medicine, 2nd Ed., 2002, p 729.
  352. Que: What is the most effective way to place an indwelling catheter?
    • Ans: conventional surgical cut-down procedure
    • Ref: Laboratory Animal Medicine, 2nd Ed., 2002, p 729.
  353. Que: What veins can be used in chimpanzees, baboons, and macaques for indwelling
    • catheters?
    • Ans: cephalic or saphenous
    • Ref: Laboratory Animal Medicine, 2nd Ed., 2002, p 729.
  354. Que: What is the purpose or use of intraosseous infusion of fluids?
    • Ans: used in severely debilitated, hypotensive animals when venous access is limited.
    • Ref: Laboratory Animal Medicine, 2nd Ed., 2002, p 729.
  355. Que: What is the most accessible site for intraosseous infusion of fluids in Owl
    • monkeys?
    • Ans: trochanteric fossa of the femur
    • Ref: Laboratory Animal Medicine, 2nd Ed., 2002, p 729.
  356. Que. What agent may be used to anesthetize the skin and periosteum for intraosseous administration?
    • Ans. 1% lidocaine
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch.16, p730
  357. Que. For intraosseous administration, where is the needle placed? What size needle should be used?
    • Ans. into medullary cavity thru the trochanteric fossa; 20-gauge
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch.16, p730
  358. Que. List three purposes for use of nasogastric intubation.
    • Ans. 1) delivering oral fluids and medication
    • 2) relieving acute gastric dilatation (bloat)
    • 3) gastric lavage to confirm mycobacterial infection
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch.16, p73
  359. Que. Rectal prolapse is diagnosed most frequently in (young/old) animals.
    • Ans. young
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch.16, p730
  360. Que. Which of the following may cause rectal prolapse in the nonhuman primate
    • Ans. A. social or management related issues
    • B. rectal foreign bodies and lacerations
    • C. dystocia
    • D. neoplasia of the large intestine
    • E. urolithiasis and prostatitis
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch.16, p730
  361. Que. In a pulpotomy technique, what materials are used for the procedure?
    • Ans. calcium hydroxide � pulpal capping agent; varnish � barrier and sealer;
    • amalgam - restorative
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch.16, p730
  362. Que. What is the most frequent isolate of enteric pathogen recovered from captive nonhuman primates?
    • Ans. Shigella flexneri
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch.16, p730
  363. Que. True or False. Death with no clinical signs occurred with infections of E. coli serotype O13 in squirrel monkey infants.
    • Ans. True
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch. 16, p0733
  364. Que. True or False. Extraintestinal signs of Salmonellosis include neonatal septicemia, abortion, osteomyelitis, and pyelonephritis.
    • Ans. True
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch. 16, p0733
  365. Que. True or False. Yersinia enterocolitica and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis cause fulminating enteric and systemic disease in marmosets, owl monkeys, squirrel monkeys, and Old World monkeys.
    • Ans. True
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch. 16, p0733
  366. Que. Which organism can cause death with no clinical signs in both callitrichids and owl monkeys?
    • Ans. Klebsiella pneumoniae
    • Ref. LAM 2d ed., Ch. 16, p. 735.
  367. Que. Which organisms can cause CNS signs?
    • Ans. Strep. pneumoniae, Pasteurella spp., Nocardia spp.
    • Ref. LAM 2d ed., Ch. 16, p. 735.
  368. Que. Which organisms can cause epistaxis?
    • Ans. Nocardia spp, Moraxella spp.
    • Ref. LAM 2d ed., Ch. 16, p. 735.
  369. Que. Microscopically, what organism affecting nonhuman primates is characterized by fibrinopurulent leptomeningitis extending into the cerebral and cerebellar cortices?
    • Ans. Streptococcus pneumoniae
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch. 16, p. 736
  370. Que. What characteristic of Klebsiella pneumoniae infection in nonhuman primates makes antemortem diagnosis frequently impossible?
    • Ans. The acute course of the disease
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch. 16, p. 736
  371. Que. What age of nonhuman primate is usually affected by Klebsiella pneumoniae (i.e., young or old)?
    • Ans. Young
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch. 16, p. 736
  372. Que: What are the gross lesions associated with Klebsiella pneumoniae in owl monkeys?
    • Ans: Purulent meningitis, consolidative pneumonia, intestinal hemorrhages, peritonitis, and air sacculitis.
    • Ref: LAM, 2nd ed., Ch16, p737
  373. Que: What type of gross lesions associated with air sacculitis does an owl monkey with Klebsiella pneumonia have?
    • Ans: Range from hyperemia of the air sac mucosa to thickening with edema of the adventitia to purulent exudation extending into the salivary glands, trachea, and larynx.
    • Ref: LAM, 2nd ed., Ch16, p737
  374. Que: What are the gross necropsy findings in rhesus monkeys with K. pneumoniae?
    • Ans: bronchopneumonia and hemopurulent meningitis
    • Ref: LAM, 2nd ed., Ch16, p737
  375. Que: What are the gross lesions of Chimpanzees with K. pneumoniae?
    • Ans: firm, inflated, red-purple lung lobes with yellow-white foci through-out the parenchyma.
    • Ref: LAM, 2nd ed., Ch16, p737
  376. Que: What are the microscopic lesions of marmosets with K. pneumoniae infection?
    • Ans: intense congestion with infiltrates of mononuclear and polymorphonuclear leukocytes occurring in affected organs.
    • Ref: LAM, 2nd ed., Ch16, p737
  377. Que: What microscopic lesions were observed in owl monkeys with K. pneumoniae septicemia?
    • Ans: Inflammation and suppuration of the Peyer�s patches and cecal lymphoid tissue.
    • Ref: LAM, 2nd ed., Ch16, p737
  378. Que: What microscopic lesions were associated with owl monkeys with air sacculitis from K. pneumoniae?
    • Ans: bacterial thromboembolism of the subepithelial vasculature of the air sac.
    • Ref: LAM, 2nd ed., Ch16, p737
  379. Que: What microscopic lesions were reported in the rhesus monkey with K. pneumoniae?
    • Ans: diffuse fibrinopurulent bronchopneumonia, suppurative bronchitis, pleuritis, fibrinopurulent meningitis, vasculitis, and thrombosis of meningeal vessels.
    • Ref: LAM, 2nd ed., Ch16, p737
  380. Que: What microscopic lesions associated with K. pneumoniae were reported in the chimpanzee?
    • Ans: Thickening of the alveolar septae, congestion, alveolar hemorrhage, and edema with mononuclear and neutrophilic inflammatory cell infiltrates. Multifocal microabscesses and filling of bronchioles with necrotic debris and inflammatory cells.
    • Ref: LAM, 2nd ed., Ch16, p737
  381. Que: How is K. pneumoniae prevented in marmosets, owl monkeys, and squirrel monkeys?
    • Ans: vaccination with autogenous bacterins.
    • Ref: LAM, 2nd ed., Ch16, p737
  382. Que: Bordetella bronchiseptica is commensal within the __________ of many monkeys.
    • Ans: nasopharynx
    • Ref: LAM, 2nd ed., Ch16, p737
  383. Que: The B. bronchiseptica has been associated with what factors?
    • Ans: recent shipping, quarantine, poor condition, and overcrowding.
    • Ref: LAM, 2nd ed., Ch16, p737
  384. Que: What are clinical signs of B. bronchiseptica in affected common marmosets?
    • Ans: bilateral mucopurulent nasal discharge, dyspnea during handling, pyrexia.
    • Ref: LAM, 2nd ed., Ch16, p737
  385. Que: What was the primary gross lesion with B. bronchiseptica?
    • Ans: bronchopneumonia
    • Ref: LAM, 2nd ed., Ch16, p737
  386. Que: What was the typical microscopic pulmonary lesion associated with B. bronchiseptica?
    • Ans: purulent bronchopneumonia with multifocal necrosis of the bronchiolar epithelium and filling of bronchioles with basophilic necrotic cellular debris, polymorphonuclear cells, and macrophages.
    • Ref: LAM, 2nd ed., Ch16, p737
  387. Que: What antibiotic treatment was used in marmosets with B. bronchiseptica that resolved clinical disease but did not eliminate the organism for the nasal passages?
    • Ans: IM oxytetracycline for 8 days.
    • Ref: LAM, 2nd ed., Ch16, p737
  388. Que: What was used in Callithrix jacchus colonies for B. bronchiseptica prevention?
    • Ans: autogenous bacterin
    • Ref: LAM, 2nd ed., Ch16, p737
  389. Que: What organism is described as an opportunistic pathogen of squirrel monkeys and owl monkeys affecting recently shipped animals and animals in poor condition?
    • Ans: Pasteurella multocida
    • Ref: LAM, 2nd ed., Ch16, p737
  390. Que: What are the clinical signs associated with P. multocida in squirrel monkeys?
    • Ans: unsteady gait, nystagmus, head tilt, and circling.
    • Ref: LAM, 2nd ed., Ch16, p737
  391. Que: What were the necropsy findings associated with P. multocida in squirrel monkeys?
    • Ans: meningitis, otitis media, lymphadenitis, and myocarditis.
    • Ref: LAM, 2nd ed., Ch16, p737
  392. Que: What were the necropsy findings associated with P. multocida in owl monkeys?
    • Ans: pneumonia, pleuritis, and meningitis
    • Ref: LAM, 2nd ed., Ch16, p737
  393. Que. Baboons have developed pasteurella infections secondary to surgical procedures, chair restraint and _________.
    • Ans. chronic catherization
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch.16, p 738
  394. Que. Nocardia spp. Are aerobic ________ found in richly fertilized soil as saprophytes on decaying vegetation. __________ is the most common isolate in nonhuman primates. Infection occurs following contact with skin wounds, ______ or ________.
    • Ans. actinomycetes, Nocardia asteroides, inhalation, ingestion
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch.16, p 738
  395. Que. Clinical signs of nocardiosis include respiratory signs such as ______ and ______. Radiographically, pulmonary lesions of nocardiosis cannot be distinguished from ________.
    • Ans. dyspnea, epistaxis, tuberculosis
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch.16, p 738
  396. Que. Gross pulmonary lesions of nocardiosis include multinodular to diffuse red to gray areas of ______, _______, edema, abscesses, and cavitary lesions. Disseminated nocardiosis with multifocal abscesses in the abdomen have been reported in the ________ genus of nonhuman primates
    • Ans. consolidation, pulmonary hemorrhage, Macaca
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch.16, p 738
  397. Que. Nocardiosis may also present as a draining multinodular ______ lesion in nonhuman primates. Multifocal to coalescing pyogranulomas containing _______ with large colonies of filamentous bacteria are characteristic. ________ cells are found at the lesion periphery.
    • Ans. cutaneous, sulfur granules, Multinucleate giant
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch.16, p 738
  398. Que. __________ is a gram-negative diplococcus associated with epistaxis and mucohemorrhagic nasa discharge in cynomologus monkeys.
    • Ans. Moraxella catarrhalis
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch.16, p 738
  399. Que. Tuberculosis is caused by ________, _______ or _______ in nonhuman primates and is usually acquired through human contact.
    • Ans. Mycobacterium tuberculosis, M. bovis, M. africanum
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch.16, p 738
  400. Que. There is no apparent difference in tuberculosis disease caused by ______ or ______ in nonhuman primates. Kaufman et al (1975) estimated that up to ___ % of tuberculosis outbreaks in nonhuman primates were caused by M. bovis.
    • Ans. Mycobacterium tuberculosis, M. bovis, 10
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch.16, p 738
  401. Que. Epizootic tuberculosis in nonhuman primates usually takes place by ______ transmission, but transmission has occurred by _____, _____ and contact with ____.
    • Ans. aerosol, ingestion, direct contact, fomites
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch.16, p 738
  402. Que. Although a particular species may be more or less susceptible to disease, all nonhuman primates can develop tuberculosis. The ________ has no clinical signs reported, while the ______ can have serous ocular and nasal discharge.
    • Ans. Callitrichid, Owl monkey
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch.16, p 738
  403. Que. The typical microscopic lesions of tubercolosis are unencapsulated _________.
    Ans. Granulomas
  404. Que. What type of stain is used to find the bacilli in tubercollosis?
    Ans. Acid-fast stain
  405. Que. How is tubercollosis diagnosed antemorten?
    Ans. Intradermal turbercullin test
  406. Que. Swelling, erythema, edema and ptosis on a intradermal turbercullin test are indicative of what type of reaction?
    • Ans. Suspect or positive
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch., p739
  407. Que. From tuberculosis testing, what does PPD stand for?
    • Ans. Purified protein derivative
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch. 16, p 740
  408. Que. Which is the superior diagnostic reagent, M. bovis PPD or mammalian tuberculin in the detection of monkeys infected with M. bovis?
    • Ans. Mammalian tuberculin
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch. 16, p 740
  409. Que. The mammalian tuberculin test is limited in its sensivity in that animals with may give false-negative reactions because of?
    • Ans. Animals in early or advanced disease
    • Concomitant disease such as Measles-due to immunosuppression
    • Therapy with isoniazid
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch. 16, p 740
  410. Que. The mammalian tuberculin test is limited in its sensivity in that animals with may give false-positive reactions because of?
    • Ans. Exposure to Freund�s complete adjuvant
    • Trauma due to improper administration of the test
    • Nonspecific reactivity to the vehicle
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch. 16, p 740
  411. Que. ______ ______ is the etiologic agent of leprosy or Hansen�s disease, a chronic granulomatous disease affecting skin and peripheral nerves.
    • Ans. Mycobacterium leprae
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch. 16 p. 741
  412. Que. Naturally acquired infections with M. leprae have been reported in a _____ _____, Cercocebus atys, and in chimpanzees.
    • Ans. Sooty mangabey
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch. 16 p. 741
  413. Que. What are common staphylococcus aureus infections in nonhuman primates?
    • Ans. vaginitis, pyometra, retrobulbar abscess, external wounds, joints, septicemia.
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch. 16, p743
  414. Que. What bacterial organism is a frequent problem with indwelling cathers?
    • Ans. staphylococcus.
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch. 16, p743
  415. Que. ______________ formation results from candidal (C. albicans) overgrowth?
    • Ans. pseudomembrane
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch 16, P746
  416. Que. Cryptococcosis is a systemic infection of humans and animals caused by a yeastlike fungus, _______________.
    • Ans. Cryptococcus neoformans
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch 16, P746
  417. Que. What are the two general forms of gross lesions of cryptococcosis?
    • Ans. 1. Gelatinous mass loosely organized with no defined capsule, 2. Solid granulomatous mass
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch 16, P746
  418. Que. What is a synonym for Cercopithecine herpesvirus 2 in baboons? In African green monkeys?
    • Ans. herpes papionus, SA8
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch 16, P746
  419. Que. Herpesviruses are a type of ______ virus.
    • Ans. DNA
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch 16, P746
  420. Que. _______________, also known as herpesvirus simiae or B virus, causes a persistent, subclinical latent infection in the natural host species, _______________; and a disseminated viral infection in humans, resulting in ascending paralysis, encephalitis, and death in about _____% of cases.
    • Ans. Cercopithecine herpesvirus 1 (CHV-1), macaques, 70%
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch. 16, pg. 747
  421. Que. Regarding the zoonotic transmission of CHV-1, contact with monkey __________, tissues, or tissue fluids is the most common route of transmission; person-to-person transmission has been reported in one instance.
    • Ans. saliva
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch. 16, pg. 747
  422. Que. Cercopithecine herpesviruses 6, 7, and 9 compose the groups of viruses known as _______________.
    • Ans. simian varicella
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch. 16, pg. 747
  423. Que. The reservoir host for simian varicella has not been identified; however, serum neutralizing antibodies have been detected in _______________ with no history of clinical disease.
    • Ans. stump-tailed macaques
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch. 16, pg. 747
  424. Que. Cytomegaloviruses (CMV), classified as a _______________, commonly occur in humans and nonhuman primate species but rarely cause overt disease.
    • Ans. betaherpesvirus
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch. 16, pg. 747
  425. Que. In macaques infected with __________, Cytomegalovirus (CMV) reactivation results in necrotizing encephalitis, enteritis, lymphadenitis, and / or interstitial pneumonia.
    • Ans. Simian Immunodeficiency Virus (SIV)
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch. 16, pg. 747
  426. Que. Gammaherpesviruses are oncogenic. Experimental or naturally acquired infection in aberrant primate hosts results in _______________.
    • Ans. lymphoma or lymphocytic leukemia
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch. 16, pg. 747
  427. Que. _______________ has been reported in baboons and macaques infected with Epstein-Barr virus-like (EBV-like) viruses.
    • Ans. Malignant lymphoma
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch. 16, pg. 747
  428. Que. For each of the alphaviruses listed, name the primate species aberrantly infected:
    • 1) Cercopithecine herpesvirus 1 1) Human
    • 2) Cercopithecine herpesvirus 2 2)None reported
    • 3) Cercopithecine herpesvirus 6, 7, 8 3) African green monkey, Patas monkey, Macaque
    • 4) Saimirine herpesvirus 1 4) Owl monkey, Marmoset, Tamarin
    • 5) Human herpesvirus 1, 2 5) Ape, Owl monkey, Tamarin
    • 6) Human herpesvirus 3 6) Ape
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd Ed., Ch. 16, p. 748
  429. Que. For each of the gammaviruses listed, name the synonym:
    • 1) Saimirine herpesvirus 2 1) Herpesvirus saimiri 2
    • 2) Ateline herpesvirus 2 2) Herpesvirus ateles
    • 3) Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) 3) Herpesvirus 4
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd Ed., Ch. 16, p. 748
  430. Que. List the both the natural and aberrant primate hosts for each of the following gammaviruses:
    • 1) Saimirine herpesvirus 2 1) Natural- Squirrel monkey Aberrant-Owl monkey, Callitrichids, Howler monkey, spider monkey
    • 2) Ateline herpesvirus 2 2)Natural-Spider monkey Aberrant-Owl monkey, callitrichids
    • 3) Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) 3) Natural-Human Aberrant- NW monkeys
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd Ed., Ch. 16, p. 748
  431. Que. What is the synonym and diseases caused by Epstein-Barr-like viruses in Apes?
    • Ans. Chimpanzee herpes, Orangutan herpes, Gorilla herpes, no disease.
    • Ref. Laboratory Animal Medicine, 2nd Ed., 2002, p 749.
  432. Que. What is the synonym and diseases caused by Epstein-Barr-like viruses in Rhesus?
    • Ans. Rhesus leukocyte-associated herpes, subclinical infection common.
    • Ref. Laboratory Animal Medicine, 2nd Ed., 2002, p 749.
  433. Que. What is the synonym and diseases caused by Epstein-Barr-like viruses in
    • Baboons?
    • Ans. Herpes papionis, Malignant lymphoma in baboons and macaques
    • Ref. Laboratory Animal Medicine, 2nd Ed., 2002, p 749.
  434. Que. What is the synonym and diseases caused by Epstein-Barr-like viruses in Vervets?
    • Ans. African green monkey EBV-like virus, Coinfection with SIV: lymphoma in macaques or lesions resembling oral hairy leukoplakia.
    • Ref. Laboratory Animal Medicine, 2nd Ed., 2002, p 749.
  435. Que. What NHP is an aberrant host for EBV-like viruses and what experimental disease is created?
    • Ans. Callitrichids, Malignant B-cell lymphoma (experimental).
    • Ref. Laboratory Animal Medicine, 2nd Ed., 2002, p 749.
  436. Que. Are primate poxviruses infectious (zoonotic) for humans (true or false) and what
    • disease is associated with them in humans?
    • Ans. True, zoonotic disease is usually self limiting; however, monkeypox infection has caused fatalities in children.
    • Ref. Laboratory Animal Medicine, 2nd Ed., 2002, p 749.
  437. Que. What is the clinical presentation of poxviruses in NHP�s?
    • Ans. papular rash progressing to umbilicated pox lesions as seen in monkeypox, tanapox, and marmoset poxvirus infections; development of small to large skin masses as occurs in Yaba virus infection; and small, raised lesions on the face as seen with molluscum contagiosum.
    • Ref. Laboratory Animal Medicine, 2nd Ed., 2002, p 749.
  438. Que. Match the following poxviruses with the clinico-pathologic descriptions given
  439. 1. Marmoset poxvirus: nondisseminated, non-fatal papulovesicular disease lasting 4-6 weeks
  440. 2. Molluscum contagiosum: causes oral masses in baboons and large intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies in chimps
  441. 3. Monkeypox: causes no clinical disease in African Green monkeys
  442. 4. Tanapox: benign cutaneous skin infection with characteristic epidermal proliferation and ballooning degeneration
  443. 5. Yaba virus: oral masses in baboons
    Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch.16, p750
  444. Que. What type of clinical disease can develop in NHP (Old and New) from adenovirus?
    • Ans. Enteric-diarrhea for 10-14 days or respiratory for 7-10 days. Subclinical disease is common and the virus can be isolated from both clinically affected or health animals.
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch.16, p0751
  445. Que. What is polyomavirus macacae know more commonly as?
    • Ans. simian 40 (SV40)-latent viral infection of Asian macaques.
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch.16, p0751
  446. Que. Where was SV40 originally isolated?
    • Ans. rhesus or cynomolgus kidney cell cultures use for production of polio vaccine. SV40 transforms cells in vitro and is oncogenic when injected in hamsters.
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch.16, p0751
  447. Que. Describe the clinical disease seen with SV40?
    • Ans. Clinical disease is rare and usually results from reactivation of latent infection, usually due to immunosuppression associated with SIV infection. Lesions include demyelination of the cerebral white matter and subependymal areas, chronic tubulointerstitial nephritis with hypertrophy/hyperplasia of collecting tubule epithelium and proliferative interstitial pneumonia.
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch.16, p0751
  448. Que. What is the incidence in humans?
    • Ans. SV40 has been isolated from human neoplasms and from human cases of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy but a causal relationship has not been established.
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch.16, p0751
  449. Que. What virus causes focal epithelial hyperplasia characterized by multiple, sessile, well-circumscribed proliferative structures (> 0.5cm) in the oral mucosa of chimpanzees that may persist for a long time and then spontaneous regress?
    • Ans. papillomavirus
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch.16, p0751
  450. Que. What is the viral group that contains three distinct parvoviruses that have been isolated from cynomologus, rhesus, and pig-tailed macaques with anemia (normocytic, normochromic)?
    • Ans. erythrovirus group
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch.16, p0751
  451. Que. What type of virus causes simian hemorrhagic fever?
    • Ans. arterivirus (highly contagious fatal disease of Asian macaques)-see chart LI on next page.
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch.16, p0751
  452. Que. What is the normal reservoir for simian hemorrhagic fever?
    • Ans. Erythrocebus patas usually (also African Green monkey, baboon)
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch.16, p0751
  453. Que. What lesion distinguishes simian hemorrhagic fever from other hemorrhagic fevers?
    • Ans. hemorrhagic necrosis of the proximal duodenum.
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch.16, p0751
  454. Que. List some viral groups that cause hemorrhagic fevers.
    • Ans. Flavivirus: Yellow Fever, Kyasanur Forest disease, Dengue. Filovirus: Marburg, Ebola (Zaire, Sudan, Cote d�Ivoire, Ebola-Reston)-see chart LII and LIII on next 2 pages.
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch.16, p0751
  455. Que. Gross lesions of Ebola-Reston are reported to be similar to simian hemorrhagic fever. What microscopic lesions distinguish Ebola-Reston from to simian hemorrhagic fever?
    • Ans. multifocal hepatocellular necrosis, multifocal necrosis within the zona glomerulosa of the adrenal gland, and mild interstitial pneumonia
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch.16, p0751
  456. Que. What are the clinical signs of Ebola-Reston in humans?
    • Ans. No Ebola- like disease has been reported but detectable antibodies have been found in a small number of animal handlers.
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch.16, p0751
  457. Que. Quarantine of imported primates was and is limited to laboratories with biosafety level __________ containment facilities.
    • Ans. 3
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch. 16, p0753
  458. Que. True or False. Measles virus infection has been common in nonhuman primates.
    • Ans. True
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch. 16, p0753
  459. Que. Prevention of measles infection in monkeys can be accomplished by screening __________ for __________ and __________ and/or vaccination of susceptible primate populations.
    • Ans. Personnel, adequate vaccination, history of measles infection
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch. 16, p0753
  460. Que. Simian T-cell leukemia virus (STLV-1) is a type __________ retrovirus associated with lymphoproliferative disease in Old World monkeys and apes.
    • Ans. C
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch. 16, p0753
  461. Que. In baboons, leukemia/lymphoma associated with STLV-1 resembles __________ leukemia/lymphoma in humans.
    • Ans. Adult T-cell
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch. 16, p0753
  462. Que. Measles virus can cause what characteristic histologic feature within cells of lung, small intestine, etc. tissues?
    • Ans. Syncyctia formation.
    • Ref. LAM 2d ed., Ch. 16, p. 755.
  463. Que. What is the family and genus of measles virus?
    • Ans. Paramyxoviridae, genus Morbillivirus.
    • Ref. LAM 2d ed., Ch. 16, p. 755.
  464. Que. Why is it difficult to establish SRV/D-free colonies by identification of SRD/V-negative animals?
    • Ans. Serologic testing is inadequate.
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch. 16, p756
  465. Que. Simian immunodeficiency viruses (SIVs) are closely related to HIV-1 and HIV-2. What family of virus does SIV belong to?
    • Ans. SIV is a lentivirus
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch. 16, p756
  466. Que. SIVs in African species are of relatively (high or low) pathogenicity.
    • Ans. Low
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch. 16, p756
  467. Que. True/False. SIVs in macaques produce mild disease.
    • Ans. False. They produce a devastating AIDS-like disease.
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch. 16, p756
  468. Que: What is a problem with the use of a killed rabies vaccine in nonhuman primates?
    • Ans: the efficacy in unknown
    • Ref: LAM, 2nd ed., Ch16, p757
  469. Que: Why is an attenuated rabies vaccine contraindicated in nonhuman primates?
    • Ans: it is believe that a vaccine-induced disease occurred in New World species.
    • Ref: LAM, 2nd ed., Ch16, p757
  470. Que: What lesions have been reported in callitrichids with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV).
    • Ans: progressive viral hepatitis
    • Ref: LAM, 2nd ed., Ch16, p757
  471. Que: How was LCMV in callitrichids believed to have occurred?
    • Ans: feeding neonatal mice infected with LCMV.
    • Ref: LAM, 2nd ed., Ch16, p757
  472. Que: How is LCMV transmitted between callitrichids?
    • Ans: vertical transmission occurs but not horizontal.
    • Ref: LAM, 2nd ed., Ch16, p757
  473. Que: What are the clinical signs associated with LCMV in callitrichids?
    • Ans: anorexia, dyspnea, lethargy and weakness, ataxia or incoordination, jaundice, and some instances of seizures.
    • Ref: LAM, 2nd ed., Ch16, p757
  474. Que: What blood chemistry abnormalities are associated with callitrichids with LCMV?
    • Ans: elevated liver enzymes, bilirubin and Alk Phos.
    • Ref: LAM, 2nd ed., Ch16, p757
  475. Que: LCMV affected callitrichids may have a high mortality rate (true or false)?
    • Ans: True. The mortality rate can be high in LCMV affected animals.
    • Ref: LAM, 2nd ed., Ch16, p757
  476. Que: No serological evidence had been demonstrated in callitrichids without a history of clinical disease from LCMV (true or false)?
    • Ans: False. Serologic evidence of infection has been demonstrated in animals without a history of clinical disease.
    • Ref: LAM, 2nd ed., Ch16, p757
  477. Que: What is related to the mortality of callitrichids infected with LCMV?
    • Ans: The amount of infected mouse tissue consumed.
    • Ref: LAM, 2nd ed., Ch16, p757
  478. Que: What are the gross lesions associated with LCMV infected callitrichids?
    • Ans: 1) hepatomegaly, splenomegaly, jaundice, subcutaneous and intramuscular hemorrhages, and pleural or pericardial effusions.
    • 2) necrosis of the abdominal lymph nodes, adrenal glands, spleen and gastrointestinal tract.
    • Ref: LAM, 2nd ed., Ch16, p757
  479. Que: What are the liver lesions associated with callitrichids with LCMV?
    • Ans: 1) multifocal hepatocellular necrosis with lymphocytic and neutrophilic infiltrates.
    • 2) Acidophilic apoptotic hepatocytes found within sinusoids and Kupffer�s cells.
    • Ref: LAM, 2nd ed., Ch16, p757
  480. Que: Why is does LCMV have a public health significance?
    • Ans: It is zoonotic and veterinarians in contact with infected marmosets developed antibody titers to LCMV.
    • Ref: LAM, 2nd ed., Ch16, p757
  481. Que: Natually occurring cases of hepatitis A virus have been described in what species of nonhuman primates?
    • Ans: African green monkeys, chimpanzees, owl monkeys, and cynomolgus monkeys.
    • Ref: LAM, 2nd ed., Ch16, p757
  482. Que: Serologic testing indicates that infection occurs in ___________?
    • a) wild nonhuman primates
    • b) captive nonhuman primates
    • c) new world species
    • d) old world species
    • e) all of the above
    • Ref: LAM, 2nd ed., Ch16, p757
  483. Que: How is hepatitis A virus (HAV) transmitted?
    • Ans: fecal � oral route
    • Ref: LAM, 2nd ed., Ch16, p757
  484. Que: What are the clinical signs associated with HAV infection?
    • Ans: The infection is usually self-limiting with no clinical disease.
    • Ref: LAM, 2nd ed., Ch16, p757
  485. Que: What blood chemistry abnormalities are associated with HAV?
    • Ans: Elevated serum alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase, 2 � 10 times above normal levels; mild elevations of bilirubin.
    • Ref: LAM, 2nd ed., Ch16, p757
  486. Que: What microscopic lesions are associated with HAV infection?
    • Ans: Focal hepatocellular necrosis with nonsuppurative inflammatory infiltrates in the portal areas.
    • Ref: LAM, 2nd ed., Ch16, p757
  487. Que: What lesions associated with HAV have been described in the chimpanzee?
    • Ans: bile duct hyperplasia and necrosis of bile duct epithelium.
    • Ref: LAM, 2nd ed., Ch16, p757
  488. Que: Human infection with HAV has been reported to be contracted from what particular nonhuman primate?
    • Ans: chimpanzee
    • Ref: LAM, 2nd ed., Ch16, p757
  489. Que: What species of nonhuman primates have been reported with a fatal infection of encephalomyocarditis viruses?
    • Ans: owl monkeys, squirrel monkeys, baboons, rhesus macaques, and chimpanzees.
    • Ref: LAM, 2nd ed., Ch16, p757
  490. Que: What animals are reservoir hosts for encephalomyocarditis viruses?
    • Ans: Wild mice and rats
    • Ref: LAM, 2nd ed., Ch16, p757
  491. Que: What has been postulated as the source of infection in nonhuman primates with encephalomyocarditis viruses?
    • Ans: fecal contamination of feed, water or enclosures
    • Ref: LAM, 2nd ed., Ch16, p757
  492. Que: What clinical signs are usually exhibited in monkeys naturally infected with encephalomyocarditis virus?
    • Ans: Death with no premonitory clinical signs
    • Ref: LAM, 2nd ed., Ch16, p757
  493. Que: What can gross pathology signs of monkeys infected with encephalomyocarditis virus?
    • Ans: Pericardial effusion, white-tan mottling of the myocardium, pulmonary congestion
    • Ref: LAM, 2nd ed., Ch16, p757
  494. Que: What is the most important microscopic lesion associated with monkeys infected with encephalomyocarditis virus?
    • Ans: nonsuppurative necrotizing myocarditis
    • Ref: LAM, 2nd ed., Ch16, p757
  495. Que: What reproductive complications can occur in monkeys infected with encephalomyocarditis virus?
    • Ans: placental infection and subsequesnt abortion
    • Ref: LAM, 2nd ed., Ch16, p757
  496. Que: What species of nonhuman primates have been reported to have naturally occurring infection with poliovirus?
    • Ans: great apes and rhesus monkeys
    • Ref: LAM, 2nd ed., Ch16, p757
  497. Que: What are the clinical signs associated with
    • Ans: 1) no clinical disease; 2)paresis; 3) paraplegia; 4) death
    • Ref: LAM, 2nd ed., Ch16, p757
  498. Que: What pathological lesions are associated with nonhuman primates infected with poliovirus?
    • Ans: 1) lesions are located in the gray matter of the central nervous system
    • 2) perivascular inflammatory cell aggregates
    • 3) meningeal infiltrates with neuronal necrosis and glial nodules
    • Ref: LAM, 2nd ed., Ch16, p757
  499. Que: What is recommended to prevent great apes from contracting poliovurus?
    • Ans: vaccination with oral trivalent polio vaccine.
    • Ref: LAM, 2nd ed., Ch16, p757
  500. Que: What is a synonymous term for nutritional hyperparathyroidism in nonhuman primates?
    • Ans: simian bone disease
    • Ref: LAM, 2nd ed., Ch16, p757
  501. Que: What is the cause of simian bone disease?
    • Ans: insufficient calcium or improper calcium-phosphorus ration in the diet
    • Ref: LAM, 2nd ed., Ch16, p757
  502. Que: Which animals are more likely to develop nutritional deficiencies?
    • Ans: e) both young and rapidly growing animals are more likely to develop clinical disease due to nutritional deficiency.
    • Ref: LAM, 2nd ed., Ch16, p757
  503. Que. Enteric protozoa can effect several species of nonhuman primates. Flagellates such as Giardia spp affect New World monkeys, _______ and _______, while the Trichomonas spp. affect just the _______ and _______.
    • Ans. Old World monkeys, Apes, New World monkeys, Old World monkeys
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch.16, p 758
  504. Que. Giardia spp are commonly located in the _______, while the Trichomonas spp. are located in the _____ and _______.
    • Ans. small intestine, intestine, stomach
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch.16, p 758
  505. Que. Amoeba such as ________ affect New World monkeys, Old World monkeys and Apes. Ambeic abscesses are found in the _____ , _____ or ______.
    • Ans. Entamoeba histolytica, liver, lungs, central nervous system
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch.16, p 758
  506. Que. Entamoeba histolytica infections are located in the ______ and _______ and can cause ______ shaped ulcers.
    • Ans. cecum, colon, flask
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch.16, p 758
  507. Que. _______ spp. is a coccidia that affects Callitrichids and is treated with Sulfamethoxine.
    • Ans. Isospora
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch.16, p 758
  508. Que. Balantidium coli is located in what areas in the NHP?
    Ans. Cecum, colon
  509. Que. Cryptosporidium spp can cause _________ atrophy in the NHP intestines?
    Ans. Villous
  510. Que. Name one treatment for Balantidium coli in NHP�s?
    • Ans. Metronidazole, tetracycline, diiodohydroxyquin
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch., p759
  511. Que. _________ _______ is the genus and species of malaria that naturally occurs in New World Primates.
    • Ans. Plasmodium brazilianum
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch. 16 p. 761
  512. Que. The _______ phase of Trypanosoma cruzi can be found in the blood of NHPs, while the _______ phase occurs in skeletal and cardiac muscle and the reticuloendothelial system.
    • Ans. Trypomastigote, amastigote
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch. 16 p. 761
  513. Que. Anatrichosoma cynomolgi is a nematode parasite that infects New World monkeys, Old World monkeys, and apes. Most nematode infections can be diagnosed via fecal floatation; this parasite is different. How would you diagnose an A. cynomolgi infection?
    • Ans. Nasal or epidermal swabs or scrapings
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch 16, P766
  514. Que. Describe �wasting marmoset syndrome�; what are some proposed etiologies for this syndrome?
    • Ans. Affected callitrichids have chronic diarrhea, colitis, and in some cases, hemolytic anemia; marked weight loss, muscle atrophy and alopecia also occur. Proposed etiologies include feeding all animals on floor at one feed station (dominant callitrichid may prevent access); primary Vit E or protein deficiency; inadequate calories per gram food.
    • Ref. LAM 2d ed., Ch. 16, p. 775.
  515. Que. Which commercial diet is considered the best for calliltrichids?
    • Ans. No single commercial diet has proven to be adequate; many places feed a varied diet that may or may not be nutritionally adequate.
    • Ref. LAM 2d ed., Ch. 16, p. 775.
  516. Que. In severe cases, what are potential effects of crush injuries due to, for example, bite wounds, in NHPs?
    • Ans. In severe cases, damage to underlying tissue can result in myoglobinuria, myoglobin casts in kidney, and resultant fatal renal disease.
    • Ref. LAM 2d ed., Ch. 16, p. 775.
  517. Que. What are some expressions (mild and severe) of self-injurious behavior (SIB) in macaques? Has environmental enrichment with puzzle feeders and manipulandq proven successful in decreasing this behavior?
    • Ans. Mild � hair-pulling. Severe � head-banging, self-biting; NO.
    • Ref. LAM 2d ed., Ch. 16, p. 775.
  518. Que. What type of trauma is common in group-housed squirrel monkeys? How does it occur (is it self-inflicted or done to others)?
    • Ans. Tail-biting; can be self-inflicted or caused by others; sometimes 1 or 2 members within a group will bite the tails of others.
    • Ref. LAM 2d ed., Ch. 16, p. 775.
  519. Que. True or False? Squirrel monkeys, marmosets, and owl monkeys may develop hypoglycemia as a primary disorder.
    • Ans. True.
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch. 16, p776
  520. Que. True or false? Human glucometers are not very useful in the diagnosis of hypoglycemia in affected nonhuman primate species.
    • Ans. False.
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch. 16, p776
  521. Que. Hypoglycemic animals weighing greater than 5 kg can be treated for hypoglycemia with an IV bolus of what fluid? Be specific.
    • Ans. 50% dextrose (10 ml)
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch. 16, p776
  522. Que. Hypothermia and hyperthermia in nonhuman primates are of particular concern for animals in what type of housing?
    • Ans. Outdoor housing.
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch. 16, p776
  523. Que. What is the best treatment for a nonhuman primate with hypothermia?
    • Ans. Place the animal in a lukewarm water bath and monitor the body temperature every 4-5 minutes.
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch. 16, p776
  524. Que. Acute gastric dilatation (or bloat) in nonhuman primates has been associated with gastric proliferation of what organism (genus and species)?
    • Ans. Clostridium perfringens
    • Ref. LAM, 2nd ed., Ch. 16, p776
  525. Que: What is the recommended treatment for acute gastric dilations in macaques?
    • Ans:
    • a. sedation with Ketamine HCL (10 � 15 mg/kg BW IM)
    • b. Gastric intubation to relieve gastric pressure
    • c. Admin. Of an agent to control gas formation
    • d. Oral admin of ampicillin (30,000 IU/kg)
    • e. IV admin of LRS (20-30 ml/kg)
    • f. Cortison (1mg/kg) admin IV or IM to counter shock
    • g. Remove gas and fluid to minimize vascular collapse following release of gastric pressure.
    • Ref: LAM, 2nd Ed., Ch.16, p.777
  526. Que: Abscessation of molar teeth in squirrel monkeys usually extends where?
    • Ans: In the infraorbital region of the eye
    • Ref: LAM, 2nd Ed., Ch.16, p.777
  527. Que: If dental abscessation extends into the infraorbital foramen, what can it lead to?
    • Ans: exopthalmos and blindness
    • Ref: LAM, 2nd Ed., Ch.16, p.777
  528. Que: What may be required for extreme cases of dental abscessation in the infraorbital region of the eye?
    • Ans: Eye enucleation
    • Ref: LAM, 2nd Ed., Ch.16, p.777

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