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What is the name, location, and elevation of the highest human settlement in the world?
- Andes of north Chile
- 6000 meters
How high is mount Everest?
Increased breathing rate producing a high level of oxygen in the lungs.
What percentage of the blood is carried in chemical combination with hemoglobin?
Dissolved in the plasma?
How saturated is the hemoglobin as blood leaves the lungs?
When it returns to the heart and lungs?
Alterations in the pattern of growth and development resulting from environmental influences.
What acclimatory adjustments permit hemoglobin molecules to carry more oxygen to tissues at high altitude?
- increased number of capillaries
- increased number of red blood cells
What are negative effects of high altitude living not overcome by adjustments?
- low birth weight
- greater infant mortality
- slow growth and development in children
What is a developmental adjustment to high altitude living?
increased chest circumferance
The amount of air remaining in the lungs after the most forceful exhalation.
What are some behavioral (cultural) adjustments to environmental stress?
- social behvior
Changes in gene frequencies resulting from selective pressures being places on a population by environmental factors; results in a greater fitness of the population to its ecological niche.
Brown-black pigment found in the skin, eyes, and hair.
The outer most layer of the skin.
Specialized skin cell that produces the pigment melanin.
Which factors determine skin color?
a. amount of melanin produced
b. size of melanin particles
c. rate of melanin production
d. location of the melanin in the skin
e. number of melanocytes
all except e. number of melanocytes
What are the three stratum of the epidermis from surface down?
In where is the concentration of melanin in dark skin?
- stratum corneum
- stratum granulosum
- stratum germination
In the stratum granulosum
What are the advantages of dark skin in hot regions?
- resistance to sunstroke and blisters
- resistance to skin cancers
- resistance to folic acid (vitamin B) deficiencies
What are the advantages of light skin in cold regions?
- Increased ability to UV rays in areas of minimal sunlight in order to produce vitamin D which is vital for calcium absorption.
- resistance to frostbite
What causes rickets?
lack of adequate calcium when bones are developing
Why are Inuit people dark skinned?
How do they get enough vitamin D to make up for the lack of sunlight?
- Because they migrated into Arctic areas in fairly recent times and snow reflects ultra-violet radiation.
- They eat foods high in vitamin D, such as raw fish.
Within the same species of mammals, there is a tendency to find more heavily pigmented forms near the equator and lighter forms away from the equator.
Tall dark skinned people of the African Savanna.
Short light-skinned people of the Congo forest basin.
How long ago did they go into the forest?
What is the most significant mechanism for heat loss in the nude human body in temperatures below 35 degrees C (95 F)?
What % does it account for?
What is the most energy efficient 3D shape in the universe?
Because is has the smallest surface per weight of any three dimensional shape.
What cools faster, a cube or a sphere?
A cube cools faster.
Who has a greater surface area per body mass an Inuit or a Nilote?
Who is more linear?
Who shows greater attenuation?
Within the same species of mammals, the average weight of the members of a population increases and the surface area of the body decreases as the average environmental temperature increases.
Among mammals, populations of the same species living near the equator tend to have body parts that protrude more and to have longer limbs than do populations farther away from the equator.
Increase in the size of mass of an organism.