Anatomy Chapter 24

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Anatomy Chapter 24
2011-04-11 22:59:15
Human Anatomy

Endocrine System
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  1. What disease is the leading cause of blindness in the U.S.?
    diabetes mellitus
  2. Benign tumors of what structure cause problems with vision and are commonly discovered first by optometrists?
    pituitary gland
  3. Manipulation of the function of what structure can treat sleep disorders through changes in hormone levels?
    pineal gland
  4. Manipulation of the function of what structure is used as birth control?
  5. What are glands which secrete their product onto an epithelial surface either directly or through a duct?
    exocrine glands
  6. What are ductless glands whose products are secreted directly into the blood?
    endocrine glands
  7. What are regulatory chemicals secreted directly into the blood by the ductless glands and carried to target cells that respond by an alteration of their metabolism?
  8. What characteristic of endocrine glands ensures that their products enter the bloodstream immediately?
    they are highly vascular
  9. What is the study of the endocrine system?
  10. What is the master control center of the endocrine system?
  11. What is a synonym for pituitary gland?
  12. Where is the pituitary gland located?
    hypophyseal fossa of the sella turcica
  13. The pituitary gland is connected to what part of the brain?
  14. What structure connects the pituitary gland to the brain?
  15. What portion of the pituitary is a true endocrine gland in that it produces hormones and releases them into the bloodstream?
    anterior pituitary
  16. What part of the brain controls the function of the pituitary gland?
  17. What is a portal system?
    two capillary plexuses interconnected by a portal vein
  18. Why do some authors not consider the posterior pituitary to be an endocrine gland?
    it stores but does not make hormones
  19. What hormones are stored in the posterior pituitary?
    antidiuretic hormone & oxytocin
  20. What are the three gross anatomical components of the thyroid gland?
    left & right lobes and isthmus
  21. What microscopic, spherical structures make up the thyroid gland?
    thyroid follicles
  22. What hormone is produced by the follicles of the thyroid gland?
    thyroid hormone
  23. What cells lie between the follicles of the thyroid gland?
    parafollicular cells
  24. What hormone is produced by the parafollicular cells of the thyroid gland?
  25. Where are the parathyroid glands located?
    posterior surface of the thyroid gland
  26. How many parathyroid glands are there?
  27. What hormone is produced by the parathyroid glands?
    parathyroid hormone
  28. How many adrenal glands are there?
  29. Where are the adrenal glands located?
    superior surface of each kidney
  30. Whar are the two parts of the adrenal glands?
    adrenal cortex & adrenal medulla
  31. The adrenal cortex produces what group of hormones?
  32. The adrenal medulla is a part of what portion of the nervous system?
    sympathetic division of the ANS
  33. The adrenal medulla produces what hormones?
    adrenal & nopinephrine
  34. What is a heterocrine gland?
    performs both endocrine & exocrine activities
  35. What are the heterocrine glands of the body?
  36. What are the clusters of endocrine cells of the pancreas?
    pancreatic islets
  37. The pancreas produces what hormones to regulate blood glucose levels?
    glucagon & insulin
  38. Where is the pineal gland located?
    posterior region of the epithalamus
  39. What hormone does the pineal gland produce?
  40. Where is the thymus located?
    within the medistinum
  41. What is the function of the thymus?
    cell-mediated immunity
  42. What type of vascular system contains two capillary plexuses interconnected by a vein?
    portal system
  43. What endocrine gland has lateral lobes located on either side of the trachea and larynx and an isthmus anterior to the trachea immediately inferior to the larynx?
    thyroid gland
  44. What endocrine glands lies on the superior surface of each kidney?
    adrenal glands
  45. What endocrine gland functions in cell-mediated immunity?