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In Zygomycota, after sexual reproduction, meiosis occurs at germination. Why?
So that spores produced asexually within the new sporangium are haploid.
require + and - strains for sexual reproduction
In phylum Zygomycota, thick-walled structures in species that reproduce sexually, zygospores develop in these
- sexual reproduction
- Sexually produced resting spores
- "Sporangium bearer"
- Sturdy erect branch formed from the rhizoid/stolon point
- produces a spherical sporangium at its apex
Zygomycota Rhizopus are composed of _______. The coencytic hyphae growing through substrate develop ______ that form _______ whenever their tips come into contact with the substrate.
Why is Fungi important?
- Symbiotic relationships with plants
Mass of hyphae are called_____?
- partitions or crosswalls dividing fungi
- Note: hyphae that have this are septate
- AKA: a-septate
- hyphae lacking septa, "contained in a common cytoplasm"
Explain the nature of hyphae, method of asexual an d sexual reproduction, and the common plant diseases of Phylum: Chytridiomycota
- Hyphae: Aseptate/coenocytic
- Asexual reproduction= zoospores
- Sexual reproduction= NONE
- Common diseases= Brown spot of corn, crown of wart alfalfa, black wart of potato
Explain the nature of hyphae, asexual and sexual reproduction and common plant diseases for Phylum: Zygomycota
- Hyphae= Aseptate
- Asexual reproduction= Nonmotile spores (sporangiospores)
- Sexual reproduction= zygospore
- Diseases= soft rot
Explain the nature of hyphae, asexual and sexual reproduction, and common plant diseases of Phylum Ascomycota
- Hyphae= septate
- Asexual reproduction= Budding, conidia, fragmentation
- Sexual reproduction= ascospore
- Diseases: powdery mildew, brown rot of stone fruits, chestnut blight, and Dutch elm disease
Explain the nature of hyphae, asexual and sexual reproduction and common plant diseases for Phylum: Basidiomycota
- Hyphae: Septate with Dolipore
- Asexual reproduction= Budding, conidia, fragmentation
- Sexual reproduction= basidiospore
- Diseases= Black stem rust of wheat and other cereals, white pine blister rust, corn smut, loose smut of oats
- Asexual reproduction
- spores produced by conidiogenous cells
- occur singly or in chains
- Asexual reproduction
- Sac-like structure entire contents converted into 1 or many spores
Identify and explain the 3 phases of sexual reproduction for fungi.
- Plasmogamy: fusion of protoplasts
- Karyogamy: the fusion of nuclei
- Meiosis: re-establishes haploid condition
2 haploid nuclei do not fuse for some time. "2 nuclei"
Meiosis in Fungi is _______.
Zygotic: formation of zygote nucleus
Gametangium (pl: gametangia)
- gamete-producing structures
- *May form gametes or simply contain nuclei functioning as gametes.
type of mycorrhizae where the fungi penetrate the plant root cells and increase the uptake of nutrients by both plant and fungal cells.
- multinucleate gametangia
- Multinucleate gametangia
Outgrowth of the ascogonium that the male nuclei of the antheridium pass into the ascogonium
Fusion of protoplasts is called_______?
Contain 2 compatible haploid nuclei
What is the difference between Hymenomycetes and Gastromycetes?
- Hymenomycetes produce their basidiospores on a distinct fertile layer (hymenium) which is exposed before the spores are mature.
- Gastromycetes have no distinct hymenium visible at the time the basidiospores are released
Define and explain the parts of a mushroom in class Hymenomycetes.
- Pileus: Cap
- stipe: stalk
- volva: cup on surface of cap, at the base of stipe
- gills: lower surface of the cap consists of radiating strips of tissue lined with hymenium
Outer covering of basidiomata of Gastromycetes that varies from papery thin to thick and rubbery
feeds off of dead animals
What makes the class Teliomycetes different than Basidiomycetes?
The do not form Basidiomata
- Fungi that do not go into the cells of roots
- Increase surface area and absorption
- grow in between cells creating hartig net
in ectomycorrhizae when the fungi grow in between the cells, this allows for a "net" to absorb nutrients to release into cells
fungi with no known sexual state, artificial group of fungi AKA fungi imperfecti
Alternation of generations
alternate between gametophitic and sporophitic generations
Name the characteristics that differentiate the phyla of Protista. (5 of them)
- 1. Photosynthetic pigments
- 2. Food (photosynthate) reserve
- 3. Cell Wall components
- 4. Presence or absence of flagella, #, and location
- 5. Various special features
Which phylum of Protista has the following characteristics:
1. chl a & b
2. food reserve of paramylon
3. usually 2 unequal length flagella
4. no cell wall but instead a pellicle
5. found sometimes in marine habitat but usually freshwater
Compare and contrast Cryptomonads and Euglonoids.
- Similarities: require certain vitamins, pigmented photosynthetic members and phagocytic members that consume particles, no cell wall,
- Differences: Cryptophyta: may have proteinaceous layer under plasma membrane, have a chloroplast endoplasmic reticulum, live in cold water (freshwater or marine)
- reduced nucleus (meaning "looks like a nucleus")
- remains of the nucleus of red algal cell that was ingested and enslaved for photosynthetic capabilities.
Characteristics of Rhodophyta and give an example.
- Has chl a and phycobilins (found in cyanobacteria) as well as carotenoids
- Floridean starch
- no flagella
- cellulose cell wall embedded in matrix of galactans
- Marine, many found in tropical areas
- Example: Bracteospermum , Coralline algae
This phylum of Protista has no photosynthetic pigment (or chl a & c, carotenoids, peridinin), uses starch as a food reserve, have no flagella except in the gametes, have a layer of vesicles beneath plasma membane with no cellulose plates, and have symbiotic relationships (freshwater and marine)
Zooxanthallae is an example of the phylum ________ that has a symbiotic relationship with corals.
What characteristics make phylum Myxomycota different from other phylums of Protista? Please give an example of Myxomycota.
- Has more characteristics of protozoans than fungi!!!
- Uses glycogen for food reserve
- Has 2 flagella but only in reproductive cells
- No cell wall on plasmodium
- Terrestrial!!! but needs moist and shady area
- Has sclerotium (encysted stage)
- Example: Physarium
Compare and contrast Phylum Myxomycota and Dictyosteliomycota.
- * Both are slime molds
- * Both use glycogen for food reserve
- * Both are terrestrial
- * Dictyosteliomycota: cellular slime mold that has a cellulose cell wall, closely related to ameobas, has macrocyst production, can undergo chemotaxis
- * Myxomycota: plasmodial slime mold, has flagella in reproductive stages, has plasmodiocarp
process by which organisms move by chemical reactions
Identify and explain the 3 types of gametic formation.
- Isogamy: gametes are produced but can't tell the difference between male and female (note there is a chemical difference)
- Anisogamy: different gametes (different sizes) and female is usually larger
- Oogamy: female gamete (ovum) not flagellated, male is much smaller but flagellated
Compare and contrast Dictyosteliomycota and Oomycota
- * no photosynthetic pigments
- * both use glycogen as food reserve
- * both have cellulose (or cellulose like material) for cell wall
- * Oomycota is commonly known as water molds while Dictyosteliomycota is known as cellular slime molds
- * Cellular slime mold is terrestrial, water molds are mostly aquatic (marine or fresh) although some are terrestrial
- * Oomycota have 2 flagella in zoospores in males
Which Protista phylum causes downy mildew in grapes as well as blight of potato?
Characteristics of Bacillariophyta.
- * AKA: diatoms
- * have chl a & c, carotenoids, and esp fucoxanthin
- * food reserve: chrysolaminarian
- * no flagella, except in male gametes of centric diatoms
- * silica cell wall
- * found in freshwater, marine and terrestrial environments
- * Basis of most aquatic food webs!!!!!
True or False: In sexual reproduction of an Oomycete, the male nuclei from the antheridia travel down the fertilization tubes of the oogonia, nuclear fusion occurs creating a zoospore.
FALSE. The thick-walled zygote formed is called an oospore which develops into a hypha, into a zoosporangium to renew the cycle.
Oomycota, Bacillarphyta, and chrysophyta are closely related by the occurrence of their ______. They are more commonly known as____________.
- heterokonts (different flagella)
In oomycetes, 1 to many eggs are produced in this structure.
oogonium (pl: oogonia)
Diatoms have a unique structure of their 2-part cell walls. What is these structures called?
Diatoms mainly reproduce asexually. Explain how.
- Cell division
- Each daughter cell receives 1/2 of the frustule from parental and constructs a new half.
When does sexual reproduction in diatoms take place?
- Because it takes 1/2 of parental, typically get smaller w/each generation
- When it gets to a critical size!
- Sometimes by changes in physical environment
When sexual reproduction in centric Diatoms does occur, it is typically _________.
When sexual reproduction occurs in pennate diatoms, it is ___________.
The phylum chrysophyta are sometimes colorless, but others are a golden-brown color. This is due to what?
Explain, in words, the life cycle of the Fucus.
- Gametangia formed in conceptacles found in diploid individuals
- 8 eggs per oogonium and 64 sperm antheridium
- Eggs and sperm released into water
- fertilization takes place
- meiosis= gametic
- zygote grows into new diploid individual.
What photosythetic pigment does Rhodophyta have that makes them unique?
- phycobilins (mask the color of chl a)
- gives the algae its red appearance
Explain Chlorophyceae's unique mode of cytokinesis.
- Involves phycoplast
- daughter nuclei move toward one another as nonpersistent mitotic spindle collaspes
- phycoplast developes parallel to plane of cell division (phycoplasts: ensure cleavage furrow will pass between 2 daughter nuclei)
Explain Charophyceae's mode of cytokinesis.
- microtubules in phragmoplast are oreinted perp. to plane of cell division
- have asymmetrical flagellar root system
- open persistent spindle
- furrowing, some with cell plate
- zygotic meiosis