Psychology GRE - Physiological Philosophy

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Psychology GRE - Physiological Philosophy
2011-03-26 00:02:41
physiology psychology neurology

studying for the GREs
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  1. Franz Gall
    had one of the earliest theories that behavior, intellect, and even personality might be linked to brain anatomy.

    developed PHRENOLOGY - if a particular trait were well developed, then the part of the brain responsible for that trait would expand
  2. phrenology (127)
    if a particular trait were well developed, then the part of the brain responsible for that trait would expand

    impetus of work for Pierre Flourens
  3. Pierre Flourens (127)
    first person to study the functions of the major sections of the brain.

    he studied the brain with extirpation and ablation
  4. extirpation (127)
    various parts of the brain are surgically removed , and the behavioral consequences are observed
  5. William James (127)

    believed it was important to study how the mind functioned in adapting to the environment

    he formed one of the first theories of functionalism
  6. functionalism (127)
    a system of thought in psychology that was concerned with studying how mental processes help individuals adapt to their environments
  7. John Dewey (127)

    important name in functionalism; his 1896 article was seen as its inception

    his article criticized the concept of the reflex arc, which breaks the process of reacting to stimulus into discrete parts

    he believed that psychology should focus on the study of the organism as a whole as it functioned to the environment
  8. Paul Broca (128)

    added to the knowledge of physiology by examining the behavioral deficits of people with brain damage....

    He was the first to demonstrate that specific functional impairments could be linked with specific brain lesions

    discovered that a man who'd been unable to talk was unable to do so because of a lesion in a specific area on the left side of the brain - Broca's area...
  9. Phineas Gage (128)
    in 1848, he was injured when an explosive charge sent an iron rod through the front of his skull

    he had minor physical impairments but there were notable differences in his personality

    this was due to prefrontal cortex damage
  10. Johannes Muller (128)
    law of specific nerve energies

    each sensory nerve is excited by only one kind of energy (e.g., light or air vibrations)

    the brain interprets any stimulation of that nerve as being that kind of energy

    Sensation depends more on the part of the brain that the nerves stimulate than on the particular stimulus that activates them
  11. Hermann von Helmhotlz (128)
    first to measure the speed of a nerve impulse

    credited with the transition of psychology into the field of the natural sciences
  12. Sir Charles Sherrington (128)
    • synapses
    • many of his conclusions held over time except....he thought that synaptic transmission was an electrical process, but we now know that is primarily a chemical process
  13. sensory (afferent) neurons (128)
    transmit sensory information from receptors to the spinal cord and brain
  14. motor (efferent) neurons (128)
    transmit motor information from the brain and spinal cord to the muscles
  15. interneurons (128-129)
    found between the other neurons and are the most numerous of the three tupes ofneurons

    located predominantly in the brain and spinal cord and are linked to reflexive behavior

    Reflexive behavior is controlled by neural circuits called reflex arcs
  16. reflexes (129)
    controls behavior that is crucial to survival
  17. central nervous system (129)

    composed of the brain and the spinal cord
  18. peripheral nervous system (129)
    made up of nerve tissue and fibers outside the brain and spinal cord

    subdivided into somatic and autonomic nervous systems
  19. autonomic nervous system (129)
    parasympathetic nervous system + sympathetic nervous system

    regulates heartbeat, respiration, digestion, and glandular secretions

    manages the involuntary muscles

    regulates body temperature

    functions are automatic (independent of conscious control)
  20. somatic nervous system (130)
    consists of sensory and motor neurons distributed throughout the skin and muscles
  21. afferent fibers (130)
    sensory neurons are transmitted through these fibers
  22. efferent fibers (130)
    motor impulses travel along these fibers
  23. Walter Cannon (13)
    pioneered work in regard to the ANS (autonomic nervous system)
  24. parasympathetic nervous system (130)
    • - main role: conserve energy
    • - associated with resting and sleeping states, and acts to reduce heart rate and respiration rates
    • - manages digestion

    promotes resting and digesting

    • acetylcholine is the neurotransmitter responsible for parasympathetic responses in the body