A&P2 March 21

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harstanner
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A&P2 March 21
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2011-03-28 20:38:37
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A&P2 March 21
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  1. Abnormal ballooning of an artery due to a weakened arterial wall
    Aneurism
  2. Name of the lymphatic structures in the intestinal villa that pick up lipoproteins and deliver them to the blood
    Lacteals
  3. Term referring to blood flowing in layers through the arteries
    Laminar Flow
  4. Temporary reversible lack of blood and oxygen to the brain that causes dizziness
    TIA (Trans Ischemia Attack)
  5. A term referring to the diastolic pressure plus 1/3 of the difference between the systolic and diastolic pressure is
    MAP (Mean Arterial Pressure)
  6. Term referring to vessels converging
    Anastomosis
  7. Sounds used to determine blood pressure with the use of a blood pressure cuff are called
    Korotoff
  8. A stroke is also known as a
    CVA (Cerebral Vascular Accident)
  9. Shock due to the loss of blood volume is called
    Hypovolemic Shock
  10. Nerve receptors located in large arteries above the heart that monitor blood pressure for negative feedback
    Baro Receptors
  11. Term referring to the difference between systolic and diastolic pressures is
    Pulse Pressure
  12. Sounds heard in arteries away from the heart that may indicate atherosclerosis
    Bruits
  13. If tissue isn’t receiving enough blood the tissue is ________________ causing hypoxia
    Inadequately Perfused
  14. An important nutrient that is reduced by Statin drugs that helps prevents atherosclerosis and reduces blood pressure
    CoQ10
  15. This is not an important nutrient for the thyroid
    Fluroide
  16. This is not a lymphatic tissue
    Pancreas
  17. True or False
    Chemo receptors in the aortic arch and the carotid arteries are monitoring oxygen levels in the blood
    False
  18. True or False
    Following the flow of the lymph we could say that the lymph vessels bifurcate
    False
  19. True or False
    The normal heart sounds created at the heart valves is made by the valves closing shut
    False
  20. True or False
    Adenoids are also known as the palatine tonsils
    False
  21. If a person has a blood pressure of 140/80 what is their MAP.
    100
  22. are substances that provoke a specific immune response from the body. This would be bacteria, virus, fungus, protozoa, worms, and pollen. They are
    generally a large protein molecule or a polysaccharide molecule. They have to be 10,000 or more in molecular
    weight. The
    antigen marker is what keeps the immunity game fair
    Antigens
  23. than 10,000 weight then on their own they cannot create a molecular immune response which is referred to as haptens
    Smaller
  24. are small molecules that elicit an immune response only when attached to a larger carrier such as protein. Penicillin is an example
    Haptens
  25. is the body’s ability to keep us free from disease by properly reacting to antigens. Their levels have different
    degrees.
    Immunity
  26. is an overwhelming infection of a foreign agent (antigen) or failure of the immune system to act properly or efficiently
    Disease
  27. are something that we produce in a response to an antigen. They are proteins produced by the body in
    response to an antigen and are referred to as immunol globulins and there are 5 types the body produces
    that help the WBC do their job: GMADE
    Antibodies
  28. is being exposed to disease or antigen themselves; like
    the measles or chicken pox. This would be an immunity that we actively acquired.
    Natural Active Acquired Immunity
  29. is the immunity acquired from a vaccine. The vaccine makes it artificial
    Artificial Active Immunity
  30. has been acquired in a natural way by receiving antibodies that will fight the bug. An example would be breast milk or thru the placenta while developing
    Natural Passive Immunity
  31. gamma globulins
    Artificial Acquired Passive Immunity
  32. is blood derived fluid containing antibodies
    Antiserum
  33. are the majority of the antibodies floating in the blood (about 80%). They help neutralize toxins in the blood and enhance phagocytosis helping WBC’s do their job
    IgG
  34. first produced in response to an infection initially and found in the mother’s milk.
    IgM
  35. are on the mucosal surface of the body and are found in your saliva, and tears
    IgA
  36. are found mostly in the blood and found in mother’s milk
    IgD
  37. are involved with allergic reaction. They bind to the basophiles and mast cells causing them to release histamine
    IgE
  38. is the first nutrition a animal or baby receives when it is born, it is produced before milk. It is loaded with antibodies in hopes of jump starting the infant with an immune system
    Colostrum
  39. which is also known as Humeral Immunity and involves the B cells that come from B lymphocytes or WBC. This process of producing antibodies starts when a B cell or lymphocyte is exposed to an extracellular antigen. B cells are produced in the red bone marrow and majority mature there from here they migrate to lymph tissue and organs. They stay inactive until they come in contact with an antigen. The B cell then divides many times into clones called plasma cells. (Artwork on the board) Some lymph tissue would be tonsils, appendix, lymph nodes, peyer’s patches (inside the small intestine), spleen (white pulp).
    Antibody Medicated Immunity
  40. are produced in the red bone marrow and majority mature there from here they migrate to lymph tissue and organs
    B Cells
  41. The B cell then divides many times into clones called_____________. These cells live only a couple of days but each cell produces approximately 2000 antibodies per second. Once antibodies are released
    from the cell they will go attach to the antigen or the antigenic determine site (ADS) making it possible for several things that could happen: Agglutination, Opsonization, Neutralization, Compliment System, Titer
    Plasma Cells
  42. would be tonsils, appendix, lymph nodes, peyer’s patches (inside the small intestine), spleen (white pulp).
    Lymph Tissue
  43. differentiate into 2 types (by T and B). Most T lymphocytes will migrate to the thymus when they mature
    Lymphocytes
  44. is an immune system created by T cells. These cells do not produce antibodies and act against foreign agents or antigens in different ways. They can active other immune systems or release signaling molecules. These cells can directly kill unwanted microbes. They
    are more than B lymphocytes against fungi, protozoa, worms, and are also better at fighting cancer.
    Cell Mediated Immunity
  45. do not produce antibodies and act against foreign agents or antigens in different ways
    T Cells
  46. Once each ______________ has been marked it can only produce antibodies for that specific antigen. Your body can produce over 100 million different types of antibodies in your lifetime
    B Cell
  47. is clumping together making them less effective at multiplying, enter cells or doing their damage
    Agglutination
  48. is the coating of the antigen to mark it for destruction. This also alerts the phagocytes (from WBC) to know there is something to eat here
    Opsonization
  49. is when it blocks it from being able to stick to your mucosa making them get washed. It also blocks the active site of any toxins that may have been released. Microbes are not what make us sick; it is the toxins or poisons they release.
    Neutralization
  50. consists of over 30 different proteins that are produced by the liver. Most molecules are numbered (c1 – c9) and each is capable of splitting to A and B that each has responsibility to make immune system work. It would not work without this system.
    A diseased liver will cause increased sickness because the compliment system would not work.
    Compliment System
  51. is referred to amount of specific antibody in the plasma. 1st exposure to a bug is considered the primary response. Antibodies cannot be measured for several days. It will rise slowly and then gradually
    decline (weeks). A 2nd expose
    the titer will rise rapidly and go much higher and then slowly decline (years). Shots require boosters for this purpose. First shot would be first exposure and second
    would linger in system longer
    Titer
  52. The nose is separated by a ______________
    Septum
  53. empty into the nasal cavity
    Lacrimal Ducts
  54. Nasal cavity empties into the
    nasopharynx
  55. = throat
    Pharynx
  56. = back of your nose and upper part of throat
    Nasopharynx
  57. = mouth
    Oropharynx
  58. = throat box or voice box
    Larynogopharynx
  59. = windpipe
    Larynx
  60. = Adams apple
    Apex of the windpipe
  61. prevents food from entering the trachea
    Epiglottis
  62. = windpipe. It connects to the primary bronchi and bifurcates into 2 primary bronchi. It has cilia in it that sweeps mucus along. This mucus keeps debris from getting trapped. Smoking will destroy cilia
    Trachea
  63. would be performed in the trachea
    Tracheotomy
  64. branch into secondary bronchi also know as bronchioles. Bronchioles are going to feed the gas exchange structures in the lungs called the alveoli. You have 300 million alveoli
    Bronchial Tree
  65. have 3 lobes on the right lung and 2 on the left leaving room for the heart
    Lungs
  66. are divided into lobules. It is one bronchiole and all the alveoli that it serves. Around the alveoli we have capillaries. Gas exchange will move in and out of the capillaries by diffusion.
    Lobes
  67. is the material lining the lungs. This keeps the lungs from collapsing. It doesn’t block the gas exchange like ammonia, puss and mucus would.
    Surfactant
  68. means the infant is not producing any surfactant.
    Infant Respiratory Stress Syndrome
  69. is the maximum amount of air a person can exhale after taking the largest or deepest inhalation possible
    Vital Capacity
  70. is the air that remains in the lungs as dead air space
    Residual Volume
  71. is the amount of air the moves in and out with relaxed breathing
    Tidal
  72. is created by the rib cage that forms the top and the sides of the cavity. The diaphragm is at the bottom
    Lung Cavity
  73. lines the lung cavity
    Pleura
  74. basically lines the inside of the ribs
    Parietal Pleura
  75. is adhered to the lungs
    Visceral Pleura
  76. is between the parietal pleura and the visceral pleura.
    Fluid
  77. A friction rub you get if you don’t produce enough fluid between parietal and visceral pleura tissues that can be very painful
    Pleurisy
  78. these cells do not produce antibodies and act agains a foreign agent or antigens in different ways. They can activate other immune systems or release signaling molecules
    T Cells
  79. These cells can directly kill unwanted microbes and are more effective than B lymphocytes against fungi, protozoa, worms, and are also better at fighting cancer
    T Cells

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