Nutrition 2

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  1. Two approaches to selecting an adequate diet
    • food based- recommendations based on servings per food group (mypyramid- vitamins and minerals)
    • nutrient based- plan diet around the nutrients (DRI and dietary goals/acceptable macronutrient distribution range)
  2. Equation for energy balance
    calories in = calories out
  3. 3 needs of the body
    • 1. basal metabolism
    • 2. physical activity
    • 3. thermic effect of food
  4. Basal metabolism
    • energy needed for vital body processes 24 hours a day, even at rest (breathing, heartbeat, body temp, tissue repair, nerves functioning)
    • uses majority of calories
    • needs to be met first
  5. Factors that affect BMR
    • extreme cold and heat temp (increases)
    • malnutrition (decreases)
    • muscle to fat (decreases)
    • fever (increases)
    • pregnancy (increases)
    • puberty (increases)
    • anytime there's growth..
  6. Physical activity factors
    • 1. weight (more weight increases calories burned)
    • 2. type of activity (what muscles are involved)
    • 3. time
  7. Thermic effect of food
    • amount of energy used to digest, absorb, and transport
    • 10% of calories consumed
  8. Dietary guidelines themes
    • 1. balancing calories to manage weight (exercise vs food intake)
    • 2. food and food components to reduce (trans fats, cholesterol, sodium)
    • 3. food and food nutrients to increase (fruits, veggies, whole grains)
    • 4. building healthy eating patterns
    • 5. helping americans make healthy choices
  9. Calculating BMR
    weight in kg x 24 hrs x 1(guys)/.9(girls) kcals/kg
  10. Pounds to kg
    divide by 2.2
  11. 3 key concepts to setting up a diet
    • 1. balance
    • 2. adequacy (all essential nutrients)
    • 3.variety
  12. New pyramid
    exercise was added
  13. 2 diet programs recommended by dietary guidelines
    • 1. mypyramid
    • 2. DASH (dietary approach to stop hypertension)
  14. Mypyramid factors taken into consideration
    • age
    • gender
    • height
    • weight
    • physical activity level
  15. 5 themes around pyramid
    • 1. balance/proportionality
    • 2. variety
    • 3. moderation
    • 4. gradual improvement
    • 5. physical activity
  16. 3 methods to look at weight status
    • 1. body fat (best one)
    • 2. BMI (uses height and weight)
    • 3. fat distribution
  17. Safest methods of weight reduction
    • 1. behavior modification
    • 2. reshape eating habits
    • 3. reshape exercise habits
  18. Normal BMI weight
    • 20-25
    • low risk for disease
  19. Overweight BMI
    • 25-30
    • moderate risk for disease
  20. Obese BMI
    • >30
    • high risk for disease
  21. Behavior modification techniques
    • don't shop when hungry
    • know what to get before going out to eat
    • shop with a list
    • eat at one place
    • don't do anything else while eating
    • small portions
  22. Trace element
    • needed in small amounts (<100 mg per day)
    • mineral
    • ex. iron
  23. Body distribution that causes higher risk
    apple shape (stomach fat)
  24. How many calories are in a pound of fat?
    3500
  25. Methods to determine % body fat
    • underwater weighing (best, but expensive)
    • skinfold calipers
    • electrical impedence analysis
  26. Why is it better to lose fat slowly?
    you lose more than just fat
  27. Health recommendations
    • don't avoid starchy foods
    • portion control
    • exercise
    • variety
    • low fat foods
  28. How many calories should be decreased to lose a pound a week?
    500 calories per day
  29. If calcium levels drop below healthy level, what hormones help increase the blood calcium level?
    • the parathyroid horomone (PTH)
    • vitamin C
  30. How does PTH stimulate calcium absorption?
    • PTH goes to kidneys to stimulate activation of vitamin D
    • reabsorption of vitamin C increases
    • vitamin D goes to the GI tract and enhances calcium absorption
    • calcium is taken out of bones
  31. What lowers calcium level?
    calcitonin
  32. Bioavailability
    proportion of nutrient absorbed
  33. Potassium sources
    fresh fruits and veggies
  34. Cause of potassium deficiency
    • chronic/prolonged vomiting and diarrhea (bulimia)
    • chronic use of diuretics
  35. Phosphorous sources
    • meat
    • milk and dairy
    • nuts
    • whole grains
    • soft drinks
  36. What inhibits calcium absorption?
    oxalic acid, chocolate, fat, phytic acid (whole grains, oatmeal), stress, lack of exercise, certain drugs (cortizone, steroids), not having 1:1 phosphorous/calcium ratio
  37. Calcium sources
    • milk and dairy
    • almonds
    • green leaft veggies
    • canned salmon and sardines (with bones)
  38. What increases calcium absorption?
    acidic acid, the need for it (growth), vitamin D, lactose
  39. Sodium sources
    • processed foods
    • leavening agents
    • salt
    • fresh foods
    • water
  40. What diet program decreases sodium intake?
    DASH (dietary approach to stop hypertension)
  41. How to calculate extra pounds
    • 375 kcals x 365 days = 136, 875 kcals/year (extra calories)
    • 136,875 divided by 3500 kcals/lb = 39.12 extra lbs
  42. What mineral is added to municipal water?
    flouride
  43. How many kcals are there per mL?
    • 1
    • 2500 kcals expended, need 2500 mL of water intake
  44. Osteoporosis
    when calcium is taken from bones, making them brittle and bone mass decreases

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Author:
elz125
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75312
Filename:
Nutrition 2
Updated:
2011-03-29 17:28:54
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Nutrition
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Nutrition
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