PHARM 5&6

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abnrml101
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75344
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PHARM 5&6
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2011-03-29 14:54:18
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PHARM 5&6
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  1. 3 CATEGORIES OF ARDIAC DRUGS
    • CARDIAC GLYCOSIDES
    • ANTIANGINALS
    • ANTIHYPERTENSIVES
  2. CHRONOTROPIC AGENT
    • INFLUENCES HEART RATE
    • POSITIVE INCREASES HR
    • NEGATIVE DECREASES HR
  3. INOTROPIC AGENT
    • INFLUENCES FORCE OF MUSCULAR CONTRACTION
    • POSITIVE INCREASES FORCE
    • NEGATIVE DECREASES FORCE
  4. DROMOTROPIC AGENT
    • EFFECTS CONDUCTION OF THE HEART
    • POSITIVE INCREASES CONDUCTION
    • NEGATIVE DECREASES CONDUCTION
  5. CARDIAC GLYCOSIDES (DIGOXIN)
    • ALSO CALLED DIGITALIS GLYCOSIDES
    • INHIBITS THE SODIUM POTASSIUM PUMP
    • CAUSES CARDIAC MUSCLE FIBERS TO CONTRACT MORE EFFICIENTLY
  6. EFFECTS OF DIGOXIN
    • POSITIVE INOTROPIC ACTION
    • NEGATIVE CHRONOTROPIC ACTION
    • NEGATIVE DROMOTROPIC ACTION
    • DIGOXIN DOES NOT PROLONG LIFE
  7. DIGOXIN THERAPUTIC LEVELS
    0.5-2.0 NG/ML
  8. DIGOXIN (DIGITALIS) TOXICITY
    • INCREASED BY HYPOKALEMIA
    • ANNOREXIA
    • N/V/D
    • BRADYCARDIA
    • HEADACHE
    • WHITE, GREEN, YELLOW HALOS
  9. ANTIDOTE FOR DIGOXIN TOXICITY
    • POTENT DIURETICS INCREASE POTASSIUM LOSS
    • DIGIBIND
    • POTASSIUM SUPPLEMENT
  10. DIGOXIN NURSING IMPLICATIONS
    • MONITOR FOR TOXICITY
    • APICAL PULSE 1 MIN
    • CONTACT DR IF LESS THAN 60
    • TEACH TO EAT FOODS HIGH IN POTASSIUM
  11. ANTIANGINAL AGENTS
    • NITRATES
    • BETA BLOCKERS
    • CALCIUM CHANNEL BLOCKERS
  12. ANGINA PECTORIS
    • INSUFFICIENT CORONARY BLOOD FLOW
    • SPASM OF CORONARY ARTERIES
  13. NITRATES
    • CAUSE CORONARY VASODIALATION
    • CAN CAUSE HYPOTENSION
    • CAN BE GIVEN EVERY 5 MIN FOR A TOTAL OF 3 DOSES
  14. NITRO SIDE EFFECTS
    • HEADACHE
    • DIZZYNESS
    • FAINTNESS
    • N/V
  15. NITRATES NURSING IMPLICATIONS
    • WEAR GLOVES
    • DOCUMENT PAIN BEFORE AND AFTER
    • SIT OR LAY DOWN WHEN TAKING TO AVOID FALLS
    • STORE IN COOL PLACE IN AMBER BOTTLE
  16. BETA BLOCKERS
    • DEREASES SYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM
    • REDUCES THE NEED FOR OXYGEN AND THEREBY REDUCING ANGINA
    • ENDS IN "OLOL"
  17. BETA BLOCKER SIDE EFFETS
    • BRADYCARDIA
    • LETHARGY
    • GI DISTURBANCE
    • DECREASED BP
    • DEPRESSION
  18. BETA BLOKER NURSING IMPLICATIONS
    • CONTINUOUS USE IN CHF AND COPD
    • CHECK PULSE AND BP FIRST
  19. CALCIUM CHANNEL BLOCKERS
    • RELAXES SMOOTH MUSCLE OF HEART
    • DECREASES WORKLOAD OF THE HEART THEREBY REDUCING NEED FOR OXYGEN AND REDUCES ANGINA
    • REDUCES BP
  20. CALCIUM CHANNEL BLOCKERS SIDE EFFECTS
    • HEADACHE
    • HYPOTENSION
    • DIZZYNESS
    • BRADYCARDIA
    • PERIPHERIAL EDEMA
    • REFLEX TACHYCARDIA
  21. CALCIUM CHANNEL BLOCKERS NURSING IMPLICATIONS
    • MONITOR KIDNEY AND LIVER FUNCTION
    • CHECK PULSE AN BP FIRST
  22. ANTIHYPERTENSIVE AGENTS
    • DIURETICS
    • BETA BLOCKERS
    • ACE INHIBITORS
    • CALCIUM CHANNEL BLOCKERS
  23. PRIMARY HTN
    • ELEVATED ARTERIAL PRESSURE WITH NO KNOWN CAUSE
    • 90% OF CASES
  24. SECONDARY HTN
    • ELEVATED BP ASSOCIATED WITH ANOTHER PRIMARY CAUSE SUCH AS RENAL, PULMONARY OR ENDOCRINE DISORDERS
    • 10% OF CASES
  25. FIRST LINE TREATMENT FOR HTN
    • LOSE WEIGHT
    • EXERCISE
    • STOP SMOKING
    • LOW FAT DIET
    • STRESS REDUCTION
  26. DIURETICS
    • MAY BE USED ALONE OR IN COMBINATION WITH OTHER HYPERTENSIVES
    • DECREASES FLUID VOLUME
    • DECREASES WORKLOAD OF THE HEART
  27. LOOP DIURETICS
    • ACTS ON THE ASCENDING LOOP OF HENLE
    • MOST POTENT DIURETIC
    • MOST COMMON FUROSIMIDE (LASIX)
  28. LOOP DIURETICS SIDE EFFECTS
    • HYPOKALEMIA
    • HYPONATREMIA
    • MUSCLE CRAMPS
    • CARDIAC DYSRHYTHMIAS
    • PHOTOSENSITIVITY
    • OTOTOXICITY
  29. THIAZIDE DIURETICS
    • ACTS ON DISTAL CONVALUTED TUBULE
    • PROMOTED SODIUM, CHLORIDE AND WATER EXCRETION
    • MOST COMMON HCTZ
  30. THIAZIDE DIURETICS SIDE EFFECTS
    • HYPOKALEMIA
    • HYPOMAGNESEMIA
    • HYPERCALCEMIA
    • HYPERGLYCEMIA
    • HYPERLIPIDEMIA
    • DIZZYNESS, VERTIGO
    • N/V
  31. POTASSIUM SPARRING DIURETICS
    • ACTS IN THE COLLECTING DUCT OF RENAL TUBULE
    • PROMOTES SODIUM AND WATER EXCRETION
    • PROMOTES POTASSIUM RETENTION
    • THEY DONT WORK WELL ALONE
    • COMMONLY USED WITH THIAZIDE DIURETICS
    • MOST COMMON TRIAMTERENE (DYRENIUM) SPIROLONACTONE (ALDACTONE)
  32. POTASSIUM SPARRING DIURETICS SIDE EFFECTS
    • HYPERKALEMIA
    • N/V/D
    • PHOTOSENSITIVITY
  33. NURSING IMPLICATIONS FOR DIURETICS
    • DAILY WEIGHT
    • ACCURATE I&O
    • MONITOR BP, EDEMA, DYSPNEA
  34. PATIENT EDUCATION FOR DIURETICS
    • TAKE IN THE MORNING
    • NOTIFY DR OF WEIGHT GAIN OF 2 LBS OR MORE
    • MONITOR BP
    • INCREASE POTASSIUM WITH LOOP AND THIAZIDE DIURETICS
  35. ACE INHIBITORS
    • DECREASES SODIUM AND WATER RESORPTION
    • ENDS IN "PRIL"
  36. COMMON ACE INHIBITORS
    • CAPTOPRIL (CAPOTEN)
    • LISINOPRIL (ZESTRIL)
    • RAMIPRIL (ALTACE)
  37. ACE INHIBITOR SIDE EFFECTS
    • DRY, NONPRODUCTIVE COUGH
    • HYPERKALEMIA
    • N/V/D
    • HEADACHE
    • DIZZYNESS
    • FATIGUE
    • TACHCARDIA
  38. NURSING IMPLICATIONS
    • CHECK BP
    • MONITOR POTASSIUM LEVELS
    • MONITOR BUN/CREATINE
    • MONITOR WBC COUNT
  39. ANATOMY OF THE UPPER AIRWAY
    • NASAL CAVITY
    • PHARYNX
    • LARYNX
  40. COMMON COLD
    • RHINOVIRUS
    • CAUSES RHINIRRHEA
    • ACUTE RHINITIS
    • COUGH
    • ANTIBIOTICS DONT WORK ON VIRUSES
  41. COLD REMEDIES
    • CHICKEN SOUP
    • VITAMIN C
    • ANTIHISTAMINES
    • DECONGESTANTS
    • ANTITUSSIVES
    • EXPECTORANTS
  42. ANTIHISTAMINES
    • DECREASE NASAL SECREATIONS
    • DECREASE NASAL ITCHING AND SNEEZING
  43. ANTIHISTAMINE SIDE EFFECTS
    • 1ST GEN-DROWZY DIZZY DRY MOUTH
    • 2ND GEN-FEWER REACTIONS SO BETTER FOR DAY TIME USE
  44. BENADRYL
    (DIPHENHYDRAMINE)
    • FIRST GEN
    • DONT TAKE WITH ETOH
    • GIVE W/ FOOD
    • DONT DRIVE
  45. BENADRYL SIDE EFFECTS
    • DROWSY
    • DRY MOUTH
    • DIZZYBLURRED VISION
    • WHEEZING
  46. ZYRTEC ALEGRA CLARATIN
    ASTALIN (NASAL SPRAY)
    • 2ND GEN
    • LESS DROWSYNESS
    • FEWER ANTICHOLINERGIC EFFECTS
  47. NASAL CONGESTION
    BLOOD VESSELS DIALATE CAUSING FLUID TO MOVE INTO THE NASAL CAVITY AND THE NASAL TISSUE
  48. NASAL DECONGESTANTS
    EPHEDRON
    AFRIN
    SUDAFED
    • ORAL OR SPRAY
    • CAUSE VASOCONSTRICTION
  49. NASAL DECONGESTANT SIDE EFFECTS
    • JITTERY
    • NERVOUS
    • RESTLESS
    • USE >5 DAYS
    • CAN CAUSE REBOUND CONGESTION
    • INCREASED BP AND GLUCOSE
  50. SYSTEMIC DECONGESTANTS
    EPHEDRINE
    NEO-SYNEPRINE
    SUDAFED
    • LASTS LONGER THAN NASAL DECONGESTANTS
    • CAUSES HTN AND INCREASED BLOOD GLUCOSE
  51. INTRANASAL GLUCOCORTICOIDS
    RHINOCORT
    FLONASE
    DECADRON
    • NASAL SPRAY
    • ANTI INFLAMITORY
    • SIDE EFFECTS RARE DUE TO SHORT TERM USE
  52. ANTITUSSIVES
    CODEINE
    BENEYLIN
    ROBITUSSIN-DM
    • GIVEN AS A SYRUP, CHEWABLE OR LOZENGES
    • ACTS ON THE COUGH CONTROLL CENTER IN THE MEDULLA
    • ONSET 15-30 MIN
  53. WHEN TO USE ANTITUSSIVE
    • FOR A DRY NON-PRODUCTIVE COUGH
    • NO ETOH
    • NO NARCOTICS
    • NO ANTI-DEPRESSANTS
  54. EXPECTORANTS
    ROBITUSSIN
    • LOOSEN SECREATIONS SO THE CAN BE COUGHED UP
    • CAUSES NAUSEA AND DROWSYNESS
    • BEST EXPECTORANT IS TO INCREASE FLUIDS
  55. SINUSITIS
    INFLAMATION OF THE MUCOUS MEMBRANES OF THE SINUSES
  56. ACUTE PHARYNGITIS
    INFLAMATION OF THE THROAT
  57. ANATOMY OF THE LOWER AIRWAY
    • TRACHEA
    • PRIMARY BRONCHI
    • SECONDARY BRONCHI
    • BRONCHIOLES
    • ALVEOLI
  58. COPD
    • CHRONIC BRONCHITIS
    • BRONCHIECTASIS
    • EMPHYSEMA
    • ASTHMA
  59. RESTRICTIVE PULMONARY DISEASE
    • DECREASED LUNG CAPACITY
    • PULMONARY EDEMA
    • LUNG TUMORS
    • SCOLIOSIS
  60. CHRONIC BRONCHITIS
    • AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION FROM INFLAMATION AND EXCESS FLUID SECRETION
    • RHONCHI ON INSPIRATITORY AND EXPERITORY
    • PRODUCTIVE COUGH
  61. SIGNS OF BRONCHITIS
    • DUSKY TO CYANOTIC
    • HYPOXIA
    • HYPERCAPNIA
    • RESPIRATORY ACIDOSIS
    • INCREASED RESP RATE
    • BLUE BLOATER
  62. EMPHYSEMA
    • LOSS OF ELASTICITY IN THE ALVEOLI
    • SMOKING
    • AIR POLUTION
  63. SIGNS OF EMPHYSEMA
    • PINK PUFFER
    • PURSED LIP BREATHING
    • DYSPNEA
    • TRIPOD POSITION
    • BARREL CHEST
    • LONG EXPIRITORY TIME
  64. BRONCHIAL ASTHMA
    • PERIODS OF BRONCHOSPASM
    • CAUSED BY ALLERGENS, STRESS OR EXERCISE
    • WHEEZE ON AUSCULTATION
    • COUGH
    • ELEVATED EOSINOPHILES
  65. SIGNS OF ASTHMA
    • INCREASED IN MALES
    • ONSET BEFORE 12 YRS
    • SOB
    • COUGH
    • INCREASED MUCUS
  66. EPINEPHRINE
    (ADRENALIN)
    • ENHANCES BRONCHODILATION
    • BETA1 AND BETA2 AGONIST
  67. EPINEPHRINE "EPI" SIDE EFFECTS
    • TREMMORS
    • DIZZY
    • HTN
    • TACHYCARDIA
    • DYSRHYTHMIAS
    • ANGINA
    • IT IS VERY FAST ACTING
    • DOESNT LAST VERY LONG
  68. ALBUTEROL
    (PROVENTIL, VENTOLIN)
    • SELECTIVE FOR BETA2 RECEPTORS
    • BRONCHODIALATOR
    • LONG DURATION OF ACTION
  69. ALBUTEROL SIDE EFFECTS
    • INCREASED BLOOD GLUCOSE
    • HEADACHE
    • NERVOUS
    • INCREASED HR
  70. ANTICHOLINERGICS
    ATROVENT
    • DILATES BRONCHIOLES
    • FEW SIDE EFFECTS
  71. GLUCOCORTICOIDS
    (STEROIDS)
    • ANTI-INFLAMITORY
    • AEROSOL, TABLET, INJECTION

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