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what is the innate immune response?
- immediatly available
- w/o memory
what is the adaptive immune response?
- takes several days to develop
The first line of defense is an innate immune response. what are it's two types of barriers?
- note: 1st line is our natural barriers
What kind of barriers do the skin provide?
- epidermis- no access to blood so only localized infection occurs
- Dermis- access to blood vessels so infection here can become systemic
- loss of skin can lead to serious infection (burn injuries)
- semi-watertight and compose of tigthly packed dead and dying cells
- the only way to enter is through bite or cut
what kind of barriers do the mucous membrane provide?
- found in systems w/ access to the outside of the body (Respiratory, gastrointestinal, geniourinary tracts)
- primary function is to keep tissus moist
- they can also trap micoorganisms in mucus by way of mucociliarly escalator
explain what mucocilary escalator is?
- the lower respiratory tract is lined w/ ciliated cells and goblet cells
- the goblet cells produce mucus which traps microorganisms that have entered the tract
- then the ciliated cells rythmically move this mucus up to the oral cavity where it is either swallowed or expectorated
what kind of barriers do the lacrimal apparatus provide?
- protects the eyes from entry by pahtogens
- causes tears to flush across eye
- tears contain lysozyme, lipocalin, and IgA
- immuniologically protected (meaning that immune system is not permitted to work there)
what kind of barriers does saliva provide?
- cleans teeth and tissues of the oral cavity
- prepares food for digestion
- inhibits microbial growth
- contains lysozyme and IgA
what kind of barriers does the epiglottis provide?
prevents aspiration of food and prevents entry of microorganisms into lungs
what kind of chemical barriers are available in the body?
- secreted at the skin, majority is oil or fatty acid. Primary function is to keep skin healthy, pilable, moist and hair. has low ph and inhibits growth or some bacteria.
- flushes organisms from skin surface; contains lysozyme
- regulates body temperature & eliminates waste
- gastric juice-
- stomach acids and enzymes. the harsh chemical environment limits microbial growth. Some organisms survive this enviroment. H.pylori resides here
- contains lysozyme; acidity inhibits most microbial growth; flushing action keeps microbes from attaching
- inhibits growth of microbes
what does lysozyme target?
lysozyme is an enzyme that breaks down microbial cell walls
second line of defense has cellular and chemical responses. what is one cellular response? what are several chemical responses?
- cellular: phagocytosis
- chemical responses:
- the complement system
What are toll-like receptros? what is their purpose?
- molecules located on the surface or defender cells and are a required part of the innate immune response
- bind to antigens found on pathogens
- differentiate between self and nonself antigens
- causes the release of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)
innate immune response relies on WBCs. Where are they derived from?
- bone marrow stem cells
- numbers correlate w/ stages of infection
- identified bya CBC and differentiate test
what leukocytes are involved in inflammation & phagocytosis? waht leukocytes are involved in innate immune response? adaptive?
- basophil= inflammation
- neutrophil, esionophil, monocyte= phagocytosis
- basophil, neutrophil, esionophil, monocyte= innate
- lymphocyte= adaptive
whats the function of Neutrophils?
- use margination to stop at the site of infection
- leave blood to enter tissues to phagocytize foreign material
- passage from blood into tissues is called diapedisis
- function is tightly controlled (short life span-apoptosis)
- most abundant WBC
- increase in them is indicative of a systemic bacterial infection
what are the functions of basophils?
- derived from progenitor cells in the bone marrow
- have a short life span (few days)
- only small # circulate in blood
- they carry receptors for IgE
- the binding of IgE causes the release of histamine, amplifies innate immune response
- least abundant
- structually similar to tissue mast cells
what is the function of Eosinophils?
- very small # circulate in the blood
- #'s increase in cases of parasitic infection & allergic response
- primary defense to parasite infection (produce powerful enzymes that attack parasites)
- can modulate the inflammatory response
you can see granules