A set of eight steps that includes identifying a problem. Selecting a solution, and evaluating the effectiveness of the solution.
A discrepancy between an existing and a desired state of affairs.
Factors that are relevant in a decision.
Putting a decision into action; includes conveying the decision to the persons who will be affected by it and getting their commitment to it.
The implication that the outcome of every possible alternative is known.
A condition under which there is not full knowledge of the problem and reasonable probabilities for alternative outcomes cannot be determined.
The probability that a particular outcome will result from a given decision.
What are some characteristics of a decision tree?
Based on traditional pro and con lists we make
Present possible options
For more complex problems
Involves getting all pertinent information
3 Elements of Creative Potential
Intrinsic Task Motivation
Understanding, abilities, knowledge, proficiencies, necessary in the field of creative endeavor
The personality characteristics associated with creativity, the ability to use analogies, as well as the talent to see familiar in a different light.
Intrinsic Task Motivation
The desire to work on something because it's interesting, involving, exciting, satisfying, or personally challenging.
The ability to produce novel and useful ideas.
How do problems differs?
well-structured problems: straightforward, familiar, easily defined problems.
Ill-structured problems: new problems in which information is ambiguous or incomplete
Programmed decision: a repetitive decision that can be handled by a routine approach.
Non-programmed decisions: decisions that must be custom-made to solve unique and nonrecurring problems.
What are some programmed decision making aids?
A general guid that establishes parameteres for making decisions about recurring problems.
A series of interrelated sequential steps that can be used to respond to a well structured problem. (policy implementation)
An explicit statment that tells managers what they ought or ought not to do (limits on procedural actions).
4 Different Decision Making Styles
What are some advantages of group decision making?
Make more accurate decisions, more complete info, greater diversity of experiences and perspectives, more alternative ideas, increase acceptance of idea, increase legitimacy of solution.
What are some disadvantages of group decision making?
More time consuming less efficient, minority domination can influence decision process, increased pressures to agree with others, ambiguos responsbility for outcomes.
4 Individual Techniques for Problem Solving
Analogies and metaphors
3 Group Techniques for Problem Solving
Guidelines for Brainstorming
Identify real problem
Identify owner of problem
Develop written plan
Monitor progress by appointing monitors
3 Components to a Program Vision (Cutris and Carter)
Management and Overseeing
Coaching and Mentoring
Building and Supporting Communities
Means planning for change, then implementing, putting into operation, and evaluating those changes.
Focuses on keeping the center running, through committees, policies and regulations
Ability to influence another's behavior.
Vested right to try to influence others
A group of persons organized for some end or work
An obiligation to perform assigned activites.
To serve as a trusted couselor or teacher to another (person).
Characteristics of Successful Leaders
Provide social support for employees
Provide high task orientation
Provide high degree of technical expertise
Maintian high degree of role differentiation
Provide general supervision (as opposed to being "nosy')
Characteristics of Power
Typically increases when it is given away, since more employees and more ideas come involved
Not guaranteed, some would rather die than change for someone else
Has to be earned, where authority
5 Types of Power
Power based on fear
Power based on the ability to distribute something that others value.
Power based on one's position in the formal hierarchy.
Power based on one's expertise, special skill, or knowledge.
Power based on identification with a person who has desirable resources of personal traits.
4 Types of Leaders and their Influence
-Workers afraid to talk to management
-Workers less afraid
-Workers fairly free to talk
-Friendly interactions, productive problem solving atmosphere
-Management knows worker problems
Team building and conflict resolution
The process by which managment ensures it has the right number and kinds of people in the right places at the right time, who are capable of helping the organization achieve its goals.
An assessment of the kinds of skills, knowledge, and abilities needed to sucessfully perform each job in an organization.
Define job description an job specification and the difference between them?
A job description is a written statement of what
a job holder does, how it is done, and why it is done. A job specification is a statement of
the minimum acceptable qualifications that an incumbent must possess to perform a given job successfully. The difference between them is that the job description tells what the employee actually does at work while the job specification detail the set of skills that the employee in that position needs to be able to do the work.
What are some selection devices
Interviews, aptitude tests and interest tests are selction devices that are used to help managers predict which job candidate will be the best fit for the job they are applying for.
What are some potential biases in interviews?
Prior knowledge about the applicant will bias the interviewer's evaluation
The interviewer tends to hold a sterotype of what represents a good applicant
The interviewer tends to favor applicants who share his or her attitudes
The order in which applicants are interviewed will influence evaluations.
The order in which information is elicited during the interview will influence evaluations.
Negative information is given unduly high weight
The interviewer may make a deicision concerning the applicant's suitability within the first four or five minutes of the interview.
The interviewer may forget much of the interview's content within minutes after its conculsion
The interview is most valid in determining an applicant's intelligence level of motivation, and interpersonal skills
Structured and well-organized interviews are more reliable than instructed and unorganized ones.
What is a behavioral/situational interview?
An interview in which candidates are observed not only for what they say but how they behave to determine how they might behave under stress
-Canidates are presented a complex situation and asked to "deal with" it,
-Research indicated that behavioral interviews are nearly eight times more effective than other interview formats.
Objectives of the Orientation
To reduce the intial anxiety all new employees feel as they begin a new job
To familiarize new employees with the job, the work unit, and the organization as a whole
To facilitate the outsider-insider transition
Sexual suggestive remarks, unwanted toughing and sexual advances, requests for sexual favors, or other verbal and physical conduct for sexual nature.
-Creates an intimidating, offensive, or hostile environment
-Unreasonably interferes with an individual's work
Adversely affects an employee's employment opportunities.
What are ways you can prevent violenc in the workplace?
Training supervisory personnel to identify troubled employees before the problem results in violence
Desinging employee assistance programs specifically to help individuals in need
Implementing stronger security mechanism
Preventing violence paraphernalia from entering facilities altogether
How do you deal with Survivor Syndrome
Provide opportunities for employees to talk to counselors about their guilt, anger and anxiety
Provide group discussions for the survivor to vent their feelings.
Implement employee participation programs such as empowerment and self-managed work teams
Symptoms of Stress
High stress levels result in changes in health through metabolism, increased heart and breathing rates, increased blood presusre, headaches and increased risk of heart attacks. Other psychological symptoms include increased tension and anxiety, boredom and procrastination- all which lead to decreases in productivity. Beahvior related symptoms include chagnes in eating habits, increased smoking or substance consumption, rapid speech or sleep disorders.
How to Reduce Stress
Some stress in organizations is absolutely necessary but too much can be harmful. First to limit stress to make sure employees are matched to their jobs and taht they understand the extent of their authority. By letting employees know what is expected of them, role conflict, and ambiguity canb e reduced. Redesinging jobs can also help ease workload-related stressors. Employees should also have more input in those decisions and aspects of the job that affect them. Many companies also offer employee assistance and wellness programs.
3 things pertain to stimulating innovation-the organization’s structure, it’s culture, and it’s human resource practices. With the organization’
structure, promoting flexibility, adaptation and
cross-fertilization make adoption of innovations
easier; plus having easy availability of resources is a key building block. An organization’s culture must have several variables to promote innovation: acceptance of ambiguity, tolerance of the impractical, low external controls, tolerance of
risks, tolerance of conflict, focus on ends rather
than on means and open systems focus.
External Forces of Change
Economic changes, technological advances, government laws and regulations.
Internal Forces of Change
Introduction of new equipment or products when management redefines or modifies its strategies, etc.
3 Categories of Change
Techniques for Reducing Stress
Education and communication
Facilitation and support
Sources of Stress
Constraints and Demands
Personal stressors: family issues, personal economic problems, personality characteristics.
Organizational stressors: Task and role demands, technological advancements, downsizing, restructuring
2 Personality Types
Type A: People who have a chronic sense of urgency and an excessive competitive drive
Type B: People who are relaxed and easygoing and accept change easily
What you should know about attitudes when trying to understand employees?
An employee’s attitude may be linked with their productivity, absenteeism, and turnover. Managers are more interested in job-related attitudes- Job satisfaction, job involvement, and organizational commitment.
Components to the big 5 Model of Personality
Extroversion: sociable, talkative and assertive
Agreeableness: good-natured, cooperative, and trsuting
Conscientiousness: responsible, dependable, persistent, and achievement oriented.
Emotional Stability: positive; calm, enthusiastic and secure
negative; tense, nervous, depressed, and insecure
Openness to experience: imaginative, artistically sensitive, and intellectual
An assortment of non-cognitive skills, capabilities, and competencies that influences a person’s ability to cope with environmental demands and pressures.
Composed of: Self-awareness, self-management, self-motivation, empathy, social skills
The process of organizing and interpreting sensory impressions in order to give meaning to the environment.
Influences on Perception
Personal Characteristics: Attitudes, personality, motives, interests, past experiences, and expectations.
Target Characteristics: Relationship of target to its backgroud, closeness/similarity to other things, context in which we see objects/events.
How we learn, shape behavior
Operant Conditioning: Voluntary or learned behavior is a function of its consequences.
Social learning theory: Learn through observation and direct experiences, modeling behavior of others.
Shaping behavior: Positive and negative reinforcement, punishment, extinction.
The Different stages of Team Development
Stage 1: Forming
-the team experiences uncertainty about its purpose, structure, and leadership
Stage 2: Storming
-Intragourp conflict predominates within the group
Stage 3: Norming
-Close relationships develop and group members begin to demonstrate cohesiveness
Stage 4: Performing
-The team develops a structure that is fully functional and accepted by team members.
Stage 5: Adjourning
-The team prepares for its disbandment
a group that interacts primarily to share information and to make decisions that will help
each member perform within his or her area
a group that engages in collective work that requires joint effort and generates a positive synergy
What Teams Need
Common understanding of the team leader role
Importance and value
Compatibility with each other
Challenges to Creating Team Behaviors
Managers attempting to introduce teams into organization face the most difficulty when:
-Individual employee resistance to teams is strong
-Where the national culture is individualistic rather than collectivist
-When an established organization places high values on a significantly rewards individual achievement.
How To Shape Team Behavior
-proper selection: hire employees who have both the technical skills and the interpersonal skills required to fulfill team roles
-employee training: provide training that involves employees in learning the behaviors required to become team players
-rewarding the appropriate team behaviors: create a reward system that encourages cooperative efforts rather than competitive ones
How to Strengthen Relationships
-important to have strong relationships between staff
-develop an atmosphere of trust and respect
Effect Diversity has on Teams
-fresh and multiple perspectives on issues help the team identify creative or unique solutions and avoid weak alternatives
-difficulty of working together may make it harder to unify a diverse team and reach agreements
- although diversity’s advantages dissipate with time, the added-value of diverse teams increases as the team becomes more cohesive
The willingness to exert high levels of effort to reach organizational goals, conditioned by the effort's ability to satisfy some individual need
An internal state that makes certain outcomes appear attractive
Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs
There is a hierarchy of five human needs; as each need becomes satisfied, the next becomes dominant.
-physiological: food, drink, shelter, sex
-saftey: physical safety
-Social: affiliation with others, affection, frienship
-Esteem: internal (self-respect, autonomy and achievement); external (statues, recognition, and attention)
-Self-actualization: personal growth and fulfillment
McClelland's 3 Needs Theory
Need for Achievement: the drive to excel, to achieve in relation to a set of standards, to stirve to succed
Need for Power: the need to make others behave in a way that they would not have behaved otherwise
Need for affiliation: the desire for friendly and close interpsonal relationships
Core Job Dimensions
The dgree to which the job requires a variety of activities so the worker can use a number of different skills and talents.
The degree to which the job requires completion of a whole and identifable piece of work
The degree to which the job affects the lives or work of other people
The degree to which the job provides freedom, independence, and discretion to the individual in scheduling the work and in determing the procedures to be used in carrying it out
The degree to which carrying out the work activities required by the job results in the individual's obtaining direct and clear information about the effectiveness of his or her performance.
Flexibility: The Key to Motivating a Diverse Workforce
Recognizing the different personal needs and goals of individuals
Providing a diversity of rewards to match the varied needs of employees
Being flexible in accommodating the cultural difference with a diverse workforce when attempting to motivate workers
What are some Compensation Alternatives
A program that pays and rewards employees on the basis of skills, knowledge, or behaviors they possess
Pre-set pay level, based on the degree to which competencies exist, and allow an employee to contribute to the organization.
A program that allows employees to purchase company stock at a fixed prices, and profit when company performance increases its stock value.
What are some work-life balance alternatives?
A scheduling option that allows employees to select what their work hours will be within some specified parameters
A type part-time work that allows two or more workers to split a traditional 40 hour a week job
A system of working at home on a computer that is linked to the office
How Can Entrepreneurs Motivate Employees
Giving Employees Power By:
-Allowing them to complete the whole job
-Having employees work together across departments and function in the organization
-Using participate decisions making in which employees provide input into decisions.
-Delegating decisions and duties, turning over the responsibilty for carrying them out to employees.
-Redesigning their jobs so they have discreation over the way they do their work.