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what are agranulocytes? what are the 3 types?
- Granules are not easily seen
Tell me everything you know about monocytes
- derived from bone marrow cells
- guided to site of tissue damage by chemotaxis
- only small # circulates in the blood (circulate in a nonphagocytic form, # increase during infection)
- differentiate into powerful phagocytic macrophages at the site
Tell me everything ou know about macrophages
- responsible for the phagocytosis of bacteria, fungi, parasites
- also attack tumor cells & normal cells that are functioning abnormally
- remove tumor cells, virus-infected cells and normal cells that have underone apoptosis
- they aid in wound healing, tissure, repair, and bone remodeling
common feautes of macrophages
- located adjacdnt to basement membranes of epithelial & endothelial cells
- contain high levels of enzymes
- adhere to plastic
- high levels of phagocytic & endocytic activty
- contain surface receptor for complement, toll-like receptors & regulatory receptors
monocytes/macrophages-what is their relationship? where are they found?
- macrophages come from monocytes
- macrophages are the most dangerous form
- monocytes are relesed from bone marrow into the blood within 24 hours of maturation
names of macrophages throughtout body
- brain= microgial cells
- liver= kupffer cells
- lymph nodes= macrophages
- blood= monocytes
- joints= macrophages
- epidermis= dendritic cells
- kidneys= macrophages
- sinuses of spleen= macrophages
- lungs= aveolar marcophages
tell me all you know about cytokines
- they are chemical mediators
- released by a variety of cell types (released in response to stimuli associated w/ infection)
- induce innate immune responses
- affect the cells that produce them and other cells
All cytokines have the same defining chacteristics. what are these chacteristics?
- secreted from WBCs
- regulate inflammatory and immune responses
- react w/ specific receptors on target cells (alter activity of those cells)
- have overlapping functions (induc/inhibit effects of other cytokines)
- activity is concertation dependent
what is the role of mast cells? where are they found?
- also known as "sentinel cells"
- derived from stem cells in bone marrow
- responsible for allergic responses and parasitic infections
- found throught the body, but most commonly in tissues that are exposed to the external enviroment like the skin, respiratory trat and digestive tract
what are the 3 distinct properties of mast cells.
- rapid and selective production of mediators
- enhancement or recruitment of effector cells
- influence the adaptive immune response
dendritic cells- what is their purpose and where are they found?
- regulate both the innate and adaptive immune response
- have long membranous extensions produced continually in the bone marrow
tell me all you know about natural killer cells (NKC)
- kill tumor cells, virus infected cells, bacteria, fungi and parasites
- found in peripheral tissue & blood
- different types found in different tissues
- derived from bone marrow stem cells
- use margination and diapedesis to leave the blood
- 1) stimulate IL-12 production
- 2)stimulate IFN-gamma production
- 3)stimulates proliferation
what are the steps in phagocytosis?
- digestion of the pathogen
about of phagocytosis, other than the steps!
- phagocytosis is the cellular mechanism of the innate response
- it is primarily carried out by: neutrophils and macrophages
- both are attracted to site of tissue destruction by chemotaxis (neutrophils arrive 1st and then monocytes- differentiate into macrophages as they arrive
what is the goal of inflammation? four symptoms?
- The normal phsyiological response to trauma
- helps destroy pathogens
- involved in tissue repair and replacement
- 4 symptoms:
what is the goal of fever?
- fever is a systemic rise in body temperature
- clinically- oral temp above 37.8 C, rectal 38.4 C
- caused by 2 types of pyrogen:
- exogenous- produced by invading pathogens
- endogenous- produced by the host (Interleukin-1 IL-1)
- unchecked fever can be dangerous
- -causes denaturation of proteins
- -inhibits CNS function
- -Causes dehydration & electrolyte imbalance
- -In extreme cases it can lead to coma
- antipyretics are used to prevent temp from rising too high
what is the goal of the complement system?
- Major function is lysis of the bacterial cell wall or viral envelope (accomplished through the membrane attack complex)
- about 30 serum proteins are involved
what is pyronen?
chemicals that induce a fever response
tell me everything you know about inerferon
- production of them is a host response to a viral infection
- produced by and released from virus-infected cells
- -moves to uninfected neighboring cells
- -causes them to produce antiviral proteins
- -makes uninfected cells resistant to infection
what is the source, stimulation and effects of alpha interferon
- source= leukocytes
- stimulated by= viruse infection
- effects= stimulates production of antiviral proteins in uninfected cells
what is the source, stimulation and effects of beta interferon
- source= fibroblasts
- stimulated by= virus infection
- effects= same as those seen with alpha
what is the source, stimulation and effects of gamma interferon
- source= T lymphocytes and NKC
- stimulated by= virus infection and antigenic stiumulation
- effects= kills infected cells and activates destruction of tumors
explain the interferon figure 15.23