MIS 592 MidTerm

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amymwells
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MIS 592 MidTerm
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2011-03-27 14:56:57
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Project Management
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MIS 592 MidTerm
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  1. Approximately what percentage of the world's gross domestic product is spent on projects?
    25 percent
  2. Which of the following is not a potential advantage of using good project managment?
    A. Shorter development times
    B. lower cost of capital
    C. higher profit margins
    D. higher worker morale
    B. lower cost of capital
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  3. A ____________ is a temporary endeavor undertaken to create a unique product, service or result.
    project
  4. Which of the following is not an attribute of a project?
    A. projects are unique
    B. projects are developed using progressive elaboration
    C. projects have a primary customer or sponsor
    D. projects involve little uncertainty
    D. projects involve little uncertainty
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  5. Which of the following is not part of the triple constraint of project management?
    A. meeting cost goals.
    B. meeting communications goals
    C. meeting scope goals
    D. metting time goals
    B. meeting communications goals
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  6. _____________ is the application of knowledge, skills, tools and techniques to project activities to meet project requirements.
    Project management
  7. Project portfolio management addresses __________ goals of an organization, while project management addresses ___________ goals.
    strategic, tactical
  8. Several application development projects done for the same functional group might best be managed as part of a
    program
  9. Which of the following is not one of the top ten skills or competencies of an effective project manager?
    A. people skills
    B. leadership
    C. integrity
    D. technical skills
    D. technical skills
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  10. What is the certification program called that the Project Management Institute provides?
    Project Management Professional (PMP)
  11. To handle complex situations effectively, project managers need to take a holistic view of a project and understand how it relates to the larger organization. ________ describes this holistic view of carrying out projects within the context of the organization.
    systems thinking
  12. ________ addresses the business, technological, and organizational issues associated with creating, maintaining, and making a change to a system
    systems management
  13. Which of the following best describes a problem-solving approach that requires defining the scope of the system, dividing it into its components, and then identifying and evaluating its problems, opportunities, constraints, and needs?
    systems analysis
  14. Which of the following is an overall model for thinking about things as systems?
    systems philosophy
  15. The idea of addressing the three spheres of systems management - business, ________, and technology - can have a huge impact on selecting and managing projects successfully
    organization
  16. Which organizational frame is very rational and focuses on coordination and control?
    A. symbolic frame
    B. political frame
    C. structural frame
    D. human resources frame
    C. structural frame
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  17. The ________ frame recognizes that there are often mismatches between the needs of the organization and the needs of individuals and groups and works to resolve any potential problems
    human resources
  18. Project managers in ________ organizational structures have staff from various functional areas working on their projects
    matrix
  19. An organization that uses a ________ organizational structure earns revenue primarily from performing projects for other groups under contract. These companies often hire people specifically to work on particular projects
    project
  20. A ________ organizational structure is the hierarchy most people think of when picturing an organizational chart
    functional
  21. What is most important about any event in an organization is not what actually happened, but what it means. This philosophy describes the ________ frame
    symbolic
  22. In organizational culture, the degree to which the organization monitors and responds to changes in the external environment describes a
    open-systems focus
  23. Some projects have a senior manager called a ________ who acts as a key proponent for a project
    champion
  24. A ________ is a collection of project phases
    project life cycle
  25. In the ________ life cycle phase, the project team creates a definitive or very accurate cost estimate, delivers the required work, and provides performance reports to stakeholders.
    implementation
  26. In a ________ life cycle, the project team spends a large portion of the project effort attempting to clarify the requirements of the entire system and then producing a design
    predictive
  27. Important attributes of the ________ life cycle model are that the projects are mission driven and component based, using time-based cycles to meet target dates
    Adaptive Software Development(ASD)
  28. The waterfall, spiral, incremental build, prototype, and Rapid Application Development (RAD) models are examples of a ________ life cycle model
    predictive
  29. Known as phase exits or kill points, ________ are very important for keeping projects on track and determining if they should be continued, redirected, or terminated
    management reviews
  30. Which of the following is a Web-based conferencing tool that a multinational organization can use to record demos that can be stored in the organization's wiki?
    WebEx
  31. Project management ________ progress from initiation activities to planning activities, executing activities, monitoring and controlling activities, and closing activities
    process groups
  32. Which project management process group includes devising and maintaining a workable scheme to ensure that the project address the organization's needs
    planning
  33. Examples of the ________ project management process group include acquiring and developing the project team, performing quality assurance, distributing information, managing stakeholder expectations, and conducting procurements.
    executing
  34. ________ processes take place during each phase of a project. Therefore, you cannot equate process groups with project phases
    Initiating
  35. A common ________ process is performance reporting, where project stakeholders can identify any necessary changes that may be required to keep the project on track
    monitoring and controlling
  36. Archiving project files, documenting lessons learned, and receiving formal acceptance of the delivered work as part of the phase or project are all activities often involved in which project management process group?
    closing
  37. The level of activity and length of each process group varies for every project. Normally, the ________ processes require the most resources and time, followed by the planning processes.
    executing
  38. The ________ processes are usually the shortest and require the least amount of resources and time
    initiating and closing
  39. Research suggests that companies working to implement best practices should spend at least ________ percent of project time in initiating and planning
    20
  40. If changes to the project objectives or plans are required, ________ processes ensure that these changes are made efficiently and effectively to meet stakeholder needs and expectations.
    monitoring and controlling
  41. The majority of project management processes occur as part of the ________ process group
    planning
  42. A ________ describes how things should be done, and different organizations often have different ways of doing things.
    methodology
  43. Which of the following is an iterative software development process that focuses on team productivity and delivers software best practices to all team members?
    Rational Unified Process (RUP)
  44. An organization may initiate information technology projects for several reasons, but the most important reason is to ________.
    support business objectives
  45. A business case often includes which of the following?
    A. all of these choices
    B. critical assumptions and constraints
    C. preliminary project requirements
    D. schedule estimates
    A. all of these
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  46. Which of the following is an output of project initiation?
    a project charter
  47. Which of the following is a common output of the planning process?
    a. identifying key stakeholders
    b. creating the project management plan
    c. creating the procurement management plan
    d. assigning the project manager
    b creating the project managemnt plan
  48. Which of the following is a common output of the closing process?
    A. quality control updates
    B. a cost estimate
    C. a lessons-learned report
    D. change requests
    C. a lessons learned report
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  49. The ________ process involves gaining stakeholder and customer acceptance of the final products and services and bringing the project, or project phase, to an orderly end.
    closing
  50. Which of the following is an output of the monitoring and controlling processes?
    a. qualified sellers list
    b. the stakeholders register
    c. change requests
    d. the project charter
    change requests
  51. Project ________ management involves coordinating all of the other project management knowledge areas throughout a project's life cycle
    integration
  52. Which of the following primary processes of integration management involves identifying, evaluating, and managing changes throughout the project life cycle?
    A. monitoring and controlling the project work
    B. performing integrated change control
    C. directing and managing project execution
    D. developing the project management plan
    B. performing integrated change control
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  53. Which of the following primary processes of integration management involves carrying out the project management plan by performing the activities included in it?
    A. developing the preliminary project scope statement
    B. monitoring and controlling the project work
    C. directing and managing project execution
    D. performing integrated change control
    C. directing and managing project execution
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  54. Which of the following primary processes of integration management involves overseeing activities to meet the performance objectives of the project?
    a. performing integrated change control
    b. directing and managing project execution
    c. developing the preliminary project scope statement
    d. monitoring and controlling the project work.
    monitoring and controlling the project work
  55. ________ management involves identifying and managing the points of interaction between various elements of the project
    Interface
  56. Which of the following involves determining long-term objectives by analyzing the strengths and weaknesses of an organization, studying opportunities and threats in the business environment, predicting future trends, and projecting the need for new products and services?
    A. configuration management
    B. project planning
    C. project integration management
    D. strategic planning
    D. strategic planning
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  57. After identifying strategic goals, the next step in the planning process for selecting information technology projects is to perform a ________.
    business area analysis
  58. One method for selecting projects based on broad organizational needs is to determine whether they first meet three important criteria: need, ________, and will.
    funding
  59. It is often easier to get approval and funding for projects that address ________ because the organization must respond to these categories of projects to avoid hurting their business
    problems or directives
  60. An organization should consider only projects with a positive ________ if financial value is a key criterion for project selection
    net present value
  61. Which of the following describes benefits minus costs or income minus expenses?
    A. net present value
    B. cost of capital
    C. cash flow
    D. payback analysis
    C. cash flow
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  62. What is also called the capitalization rate or opportunity cost of capital?
    discount rate
  63. In net present value (NPV) analysis, the ________ is a multiplier for each year based on the discount rate and year.
    discount factor
  64. ________ is the result of subtracting the project costs from the benefits and then dividing by the costs
    Return on investment (ROI)
  65. You can determine a project's ________ by finding what discount rate results in an NPV of zero for the project
    internal rate of return(IRR)
  66. A ________ is a tool that provides a systematic process for selecting projects based on many criteria. These criteria can include factors such as meeting broad organizational need or addressing problems, opportunities, or directives.
    weighted scoring model
  67. A(n) ________ is a methodology that converts an organization's value drivers, such as customer service, innovation, operational efficiency, and financial performance, to a series of defined metrics.
    balanced scorecard
  68. After top management decides on which projects to pursue, it needs to create and distribute documentation to authorize project initiation. This documentation can take many forms, but one common form is the ________.
    project charter
  69. A ________ consists of an approved project management plan plus approved changes
    baseline
  70. ________ involves identifying, evaluating, and managing changes throughout the project life cycle
    Integrated change control
  71. One of the most important and most difficult aspects of project management is defining the ________ of the project
    scope
  72. ________ can be product-related, such as a piece of hardware or software, or process-related, such as a planning document or meeting minutes.
    Deliverables
  73. Which of the following processes of project scope management involves defining and documenting the features and functions of the products produced during the project as well as the processes used for creating them?
    collecting requirements
  74. What process of project scope management involves subdividing the major project deliverables into smaller, more manageable components
    creating the WBS
  75. Key project stakeholders, such as the customer and sponsor for the project, inspect and then formally accept the deliverables of the project during the ________ process of project scope management.
    scope verification
  76. What process of project scope management involves reviewing the project charter and preliminary scope statement created during the initiation process and adding more information during the planning process as requirements are developed and change requests are approved?
    scope definition
  77. ________ is the first step in project scope management and is often the most difficult
    collecting requirements
  78. The project scope statement, stakeholder requirements documentation, and organizational process assets are the primary inputs for creating a ________.
    work breakdown structure
  79. A ________ represents the lowest level of work that the project manager is using to monitor and control the project
    work package
  80. One approach for constructing a WBS is the ________, in which you use a similar project's WBS as a starting point.
    analogy approach
  81. In which approach to creating a WBS do team members first identify as many specific tasks related to the project as possible?
    bottom-up approach
  82. Most project managers consider the ________ of WBS construction to be conventional; you start with the largest items of the project and break them into their subordinate items
    top-down approach
  83. Instead of writing tasks down in a list or immediately trying to create a structure for tasks, the ________ allows people to write and even draw pictures of ideas in a nonlinear format.
    mind-mapping approach
  84. What is a basic principle that applies to creating any good WBS and its WBS dictionary?
    A WBS item is the responsibility of only one individual, even though many people may be working on it.
  85. The approved project scope statement and its associated WBS and WBS dictionary form the
    scope baseline
  86. Even when the project scope is fairly well defined, many information technology projects suffer from ________, which is the tendency for project scope to keep getting bigger and bigger
    scope creep
  87. The project management plan, requirements documentation, the requirements traceability matrix, and validated deliverables are the main inputs for ________.
    scope verification
  88. ________ is the difference between planned and actual performance.
    Variance
  89. ________ uses highly organized and intensive workshops to bring together project stakeholders - the sponsor, users, business analysts, programmers, and so on - to jointly define and design information systems
    Joint Application Design (JAD)
  90. ________ is a process for identifying and modeling business events, who initiated them, and how the system should respond to them
    Use case modeling
  91. What processe of project time management involves identifying and documenting the relationships between project activities?
    activity sequencing
  92. Activity resource requirements, a resource breakdown structure, requested changes, and updates to the activity attributes and resource calendars are the main outputs of ________.
    activity resource estimating
  93. Which of the following processes of project time management involves identifying the specific activities that the project team members and stakeholders must perform to produce the project deliverables?
    activity definition
  94. What process of project time management involves estimating the number of work periods that are needed to complete individual activities?
    activity duration estimating
  95. A(n) ________ on a project is a significant event that normally has no duration.
    milestone
  96. A project team might follow good practice and not start the detailed design of a new information system until the users sign off on all of the analysis work. This is an example of a(n) ________ dependency.
    discretionary
  97. A(n) ________ dependency is inherent in the nature of the work being performed on a project and is sometimes referred to as hard logic
    mandatory
  98. A ________ is a schematic display of the logical relationships among, or sequencing of, project activities.
    network diagram
  99. What describes a relationship where the "from" activity must be finished before the "to" activity can be finished?
    finish-to-finish
  100. On several information technology projects, a group of activities all start simultaneously, such as the many tasks that occur when a new system goes live. This is an example of which type of relationship?
    start-to-start
  101. A ________ is a hierarchical structure that identifies the project's resources by category and type.
    resource breakdown structure
  102. The planned schedule dates for activities are called the ________.
    baseline dates
  103. ________ is a network diagramming technique used to predict total project duration
    Critical path method (CPM)
  104. ________ describes the amount of time an activity can be delayed without delaying the early start date of any immediately following activities
    Free slack
  105. In critical path analysis, a ________ determines the early start and early finish dates for each activity
    forward pass
  106. What involves doing activities in parallel that you would normally do in sequence?
    fast tracking
  107. ________ is a method of scheduling that considers limited resources when creating a project schedule and includes buffers to protect the project completion date
    Critical chain scheduling
  108. There are many issues involved in controlling changes to project schedules. It is important first to ensure that the project schedule is ________.
    realistic
  109. ________ states that work expands to fill the time allowed
    Parkinson's Law
  110. ________ occurs when a resource works on more than one task at a time
    multitasking
  111. Many organizations claim that using project management provides advantages, such as ________.
    A. shorter development times
    B. higher profit margins
    C. all of these
    D. improved customer relations
    C. all of these
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  112. According to the Project Management Institute, a(n) ________ is a temporary endeavor undertaken to create a unique product, service, or result
    project
  113. If the vice president of sales initiates a project to improve direct product sales using the Internet, he or she might be the ________.
    project sponsor
  114. To create a successful project, a project manager must consider scope, time, and cost and balance these often-competing goals. This is sometimes referred to in project management as the ________.
    triple constraint
  115. ________ are the people involved in or affected by project activities and include the project sponsor, project team, support staff, customers, users, suppliers, and even opponents of the project
    Stakeholders
  116. Project ________ management involves defining and managing all the work required to complete the project successfully
    scope
  117. Project ________ management ensures that the project will satisfy the stated or implied needs for which it was undertaken.
    scope
  118. Project ________ management involves generating, collecting, disseminating, and storing project information
    communications
  119. Project ________ management involves acquiring goods and services for a project from outside the performing organization.
    procurement
  120. Project ________ management is an overarching function that affects and is affected by all of the other knowledge areas
    integration
  121. Motivation techniques, empathic listening, team building exercises, resource histograms, and project management charts are examples of the tools and techniques project managers can use in project ________ management
    human resources
  122. In many organizations, project managers also support an emerging business strategy of project ________ management, in which organizations group and manage projects as a portfolio of investments that contributed to the entire enterprise's success
    portfolio
  123. Which of the following helps projects succeed?
    A. executive support
    B. broad scope
    C. flexible basic requirements
    D. customized software infrastructure
    A. executive support
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  124. Which IT project portfolio category helps transform business?
    venture
  125. Generally, a ________ focuses on long-term goals and big-picture objectives, while inspiring people to reach those goals.
    leader
  126. Generally, a ________ often deals with the day-to-day details of meeting specific goals
    manager
  127. A ________ is a standard format for displaying project schedule information by listing project activities and their corresponding start and finish dates in a calendar format
    Gantt chart
  128. Members of the Navy Polaris missile/submarine project first used ________ in 1958 to help managers model the relationships among project tasks.
    network diagrams
  129. By August 2008, there were roughly how many certified Project Management Professionals (PMPs)?
    295,000
  130. Microsoft Project is the most widely used project management software today and is an example of a ________ tool
    midrange
  131. Which of the following is not part of the three-sphere model for systems management?
    A. technology
    B. organization
    C. business
    D. information
    D. information
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  132. Which of the four frames of organizaitons addresses how meetings are run, employee dress codes, and expected work hours?
    symbolic
  133. Personnel in a _____ organizational structure often report to two or more bosses.
    matrix
  134. Project work is most successful in an organizational culture where all of the following characteristics are high except_____.
    A. risk tolerance
    B. control
    C. group emphasis
    D. member identity
    B. control
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  135. A _____ is a product or service, such as a technical report, a training session, or hardware, produced or provided as part of a project.
    deliverable
  136. Which of the following is not a phase of the traditional project life cycle?
    A. concept
    B. implementation
    C. systems analysis
    D. development
    C. systems analysis
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  137. What is the term used to describe a framework of the phases involved in developing information systems?
    systems development life cycle
  138. Another name for a phase exit is a _____ point.
    kill
  139. The nature of information technology projects is different from projects in many other industries because they are very
    diverse
  140. What term is used to describe when an organization acquires goods and or sources from an outside source in another country?
    offshoring
  141. A _____ is a series of actions directed toward a particular result.
    process
  142. _____ processes include coordinating people and other resources to carry out the project plans and produce the products, services, or results of the project or phase.
    executing
  143. Which process group normally requires the most resources and time?
    executing
  144. What methodology was developed in the UK, defines 45 separate subprocesses, and organizes these into eight process groups?
    PRINCE2
  145. What is often completed before initiating a project?
    business case
  146. A work breakdown structure, project schedule, and cost estimates are outputs of the _____.
    planning
  147. Initiating involves developing a project charter, which is part of the project _____ management knowledge area.
    integration
  148. _____ involves measuring progress toward project objectives and taking corrective actions.
    Monitoring and controlling
  149. What type of report do project eams create to reflect on what went right and what went wrong with the project?
    lessons-learned report
  150. Many people use _____ to have a standard format for preparing various project management documents.
    templates
  151. Which of the following processes is not part of project integration management?
    A. develop the project management plan
    B. develop the project business case
    C. close the project or phase
    D. develop the project charter
    B. develop the project business case
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  152. What is the last step in the four-stage planning process for selecting information technology projects.
    resource allocation
  153. Which of the following is not a best practice for new product development projects?
    A. focus on customer needs in identifying projects
    B. select projects that will take less than two years to provide payback
    C. assign project managers to lead projects
    D. align projects and rsources with business strategy
    B. select projects that will take less than two years to complete
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  154. A new govenment law requires an organization to report data in a new way. Under which category would a new information system project to provide this data fall?
    directive
  155. If estimates for total dicsounted benefits for a project are $120,000 and total discounted costs are $100,000, what is the estimated return on investment (ROI)
    20%
  156. A _____ is a document that formally recognizes the existence of a project and provides direction on the project's objectives and management.
    project charter
  157. Which of the following items is not normally included in a project charter?
    A. the name of the project manager
    B. a Gantt Chart
    C. stakeholder signatures
    D. budget information
    B. Gantt Chart
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  158. _____ ensures that the descriptions of the project's products are correct and complete.
    Configuration management
  159. Which of the following is not a suggestion for performing integrated change control?
    A. view project management as a process of constant communication and negotiation
    B. establish a formal change control system
    C. use good configuration management
    D. minimize change
    D. minimize change
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  160. What tool and technique is used for all of the other project integration management processes?
    expert judgment
  161. _____ refers to all the work involved in creating the products of the project and the processes used to create them.
    Scope
  162. Which tool or technique for collecting requirements is often the most expensive and time consuming?
    interviews
  163. A _____ is a deliverable-oriented grouping of the work involved in a project that defines the total scope of the project.
    WBS
  164. What approach to developing a WBS involves writing down or drawing ideas in a nonlinear format?
    mind-mapping
  165. Assume you have a project with major catagories called planning, analysis, design, and testing. What level of the WBS would these items fall under?
    2
  166. Which of the following is not a best practice that can help in avoiding scope problems on information technoglogy projects?
    A. follow good project management processes
    B. use off -the-shelf hardware and software whenever possible
    C. keep the scope realistic
    D. don't involve to many users in scope management
    D. don't involve to many users in scope management
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  167. What major restaurant chain terminated a large project after spending $170 million on it, primarily because they realized the project scope was too much to hande?
    McDonalds
  168. Scope _____ is often achieved by a customer inspection and then sign-off on key deliverables.
    verification
  169. Which of the following is not a suggestion for improving user input?
    A. have users on the project team
    B. only have meetings as needed, not on a regular basis
    C. Develop a good project selection process for information technology projects
    D. co-locate users with developers
    B. only have meetings as needed, not on a regular basis
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  170. Project managment software helps you develop a _____, which serves as a basis for creating Gantt charts, assigning resources, and allocating cost.
    WBS
  171. What is the first process in planning a project schedule?
    defining activities
  172. Predecessors, successors, logical relationships, leads and lags, resource requirements, constraints, imposed dates, and assumptions are all examples of
    activity attributes
  173. As the project manager for a software develpment project, you are helping to develop the project schedule. You decide that writing code for a system should not start until users sign off on the analysis work. What type of dependency is this?
    discrtionary
  174. You cannot start editing a technical report until someone else completes the first draft. What type of dependency does this represent?
    finish-to-start
  175. Which of the following statements is false?
    A. A Gantt chart is a common tool for displaying project schedule information
    B. Duration and effort are synonymous terms.
    C. A three-point estimate is an estimate that includes an optimistic, most likely, and pessimistic estimate.
    D. A resource breakdown structure is a hierarchical structure that identifies the project's rewources by category and type.
    B.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  176. What symbol on a Gantt chart represents a slipped milestone?
    a white diamond
  177. What type of diagram shows planned and actual project schedule information?
    a Tracking Gantt chart
  178. _____ is a network diagramming technique used to predict total project duration.
    PERT
  179. Which of the following statements is false?
    a. "Growing Grass" was on the critical path for a large theme park project.
    b. The critical path is the series of activities that determine the earliest time by which a project can be completed.
    c. A forward pass through a project netwrok diagram determines the early start and early finish dates for each activity.
    d. Fast tracking is a tchnique for making cost and schedule trade-offs to obtain the greates amount of schedule compression for the least incremental cost.
    d
  180. _____ is a method of scheduling that considers limited resources when creating a project schedule and includes buffers to protec the project completion date.
    Critical chain scheduling
  181. Scope refers to the length of time a project should take.
    False
  182. 2. Program management and project management are the same items
    False
  183. The critical path always includes the most critical activities
    False
  184. PERT weighted average includes a degree of uncertainty or risk in the avg
    True
  185. ____ involves working with stakeholders to create a document that formally authorizes a project
    Project Charter
  186. A Gantt chart displays start and end dates of an activity via:
    Calendar Format
  187. The ___ grants project management certification
    PMI
  188. The _____ is generally considered the segment with the highest risk
    Early Phase
  189. ___ is the amount of time an activity can be delayed from its early start without delaying the finish date
    Total Slack
  190. ____ should serve as a foundation for deciding which projects to pursue
    Strategic Planning
  191. The five main process groups for good project management include all but?
    Initiating
    Controlling
    Cost Control
    Executing
    Closing
    Planning
    Cost Control
  192. WBS means
    Work Breakdown Structure
  193. A __ is a methodology that convert’s a firm’s drivers such as customer service, financial performance to a series of define metrics
    Balanced Scorecard
  194. In a weighted scoring model, the sum of all criteria weights must total
    100
  195. Duration only includes the actual amount of time spent on an activity
    False
  196. ____ involves doing activities in parallel that you would normally do in sequence
    Fast Tracking
  197. Project scope is a technique that uses branches radiating out of a core idea to structure thoughts and ideas.
    False
  198. A milestone is
    An object in a Gantt chart that generally has no duration
  199. Which of the following does not generally involve the time value of money?
    ROI
    NPV
    Cash Payback Period
    All include the time value of money
    All include the time value of money
  200. Which step is often ‘shorted’ by Proj Mgr’s but should not be ignored in the PM process
    Planning

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