Glossary of reading terms
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Reading words in text with no errors.
Students are academically engaged when they are participating in activities/instruction in a meaningful way and understanding the tasks in which they are involved.
A general term that refers to prefixes and suffixes.
The concept that letters and letter combinations represent individual phonemes in written words.
Forming connections between the text and the information and experiences of the reader.
Understanding what one is reading, the ultimate goal of all reading activity.
The ability to translate a word from print to speech, usually by employing knowledge of sound symbol correspondences; also the act of deciphering a new word by sounding it out.
A group of two consecutive letters whose phonetic value is a single sound (e.g., /ea/ in bread; /ch/ in chat; /ng/ in sing).
A vowel produced by the tongue shifting position during articulation; a vowel that feels as if it has two parts, especially the vowels spelled ow, oy, ou, and oi.
- Explicit instruction involves direct explanation. The teacher’s language is concise, specific, and related to the objective. Another characteristic of explicit instruction is a visible instructional approach which includes a high level of teacher/student interaction.
- Explicit instruction means that the actions of the teacher are clear, unambiguous, direct, and visible. This makes it clear what the students are to do and learn. Nothing is left to guess work.
Reports factual information (also referred to as informational text) and the relationships among ideas. Expository text tends to be more difficult for students than narrative text because of the density of long, difficult, and unknown words or word parts.
Five Components of Reading:
Phonemic awareness, alphabetic principle, fluency, vocabulary, and comprehension.
:Ability to read text quickly, accurately, and with proper expression. Fluency provides a bridge between word recognition and comprehension.
Frustrational Reading Level:
The level at which a reader reads at less than a 90% accuracy (i.e., no more than one error per 10 words read). Frustration level text is difficult text for the reader.
A letter or letter combination that spells a phoneme; can be one, two, three, or four letters in English (e.g., e, ei, igh, eigh).
The relationship between letters and phonemes.
Words that are spelled the same but have different origins and meanings.They may or may not be pronounced the same (e.g., can as in a metal container/can as in able to).
Words that sound the same but are spelled differently (e.g., cents/sense, knight/night).
Words that may or may not be spelled alike but are pronounced the same. These words are of different origins and have different meanings (e.g., ate and eight; scale as in the covering of a fish; and scale as in a device used to weigh things)
The opposite of explicit instruction. Students discover skills and concepts instead of being explicitly taught. For example, the teacher writes a list of words on the board that begin with the letter “m” (mud,milk, meal, and mattress) and asks the students how the words are similar. The teacher elicits from the students that the letter “m” stands for the sound you hear at the beginning of the words.
Independent Reading Level:
The level at which a reader can read text with 95% accuracy (i.e., no more than one error per 20 words read). Independent reading level is relatively easy text for the reader.
Instructional Reading Level:
The level at which a reader can read text with 90% accuracy (i.e., no more than one error per 10 words read). Instructional reading level engages the student in challenging, but manageable text.
An attempt to spell a word based on a student’s knowledge of the spelling system and how it works (e.g., kt for cat).
Words that contain letters that stray from the most common sound pronunciation; words that do not follow common phonic patterns (e.g., were, was, laugh, been).
An awareness of one’s own thinking processes and how they work. The process of consciously thinking about one’s learning or reading while actually being engaged in learning or reading. Metacognitive strategies can be taught to students; good readers use metacognitive strategies to think about and have control over their reading.
The smallest meaningful unit of language.
An analysis of words formed by adding prefixes, suffixes or other meaningful word units to a base word.
- These are words with more than one syllable. A systematic introduction of prefixes, suffixes, and multisyllabic words should occur throughout a
- reading program. The average number of syllables in the words students read should increase steadily throughout the grades.
Onset and Rime:
In a syllable, the onset is the initial consonant or consonants, and the rime is the vowel and any consonants that follow it (e.g., the word sat, the onset is “s” and the rime is “at”. In the word flip, the onset is “fl” and the rime is “ip”).
The representation of the sounds of a language by written or printed symbols.
Phases of Word Learning:
- Pre-alphabetic-Sight word learning at the earliest period. Children do not form letter-sound connections to read words; if they are able to read words at all, they do so by remembering selected visual
- Partial alphabetic-Children learn the names or sounds of alphabet letters and use these to remember how to read words. However, they form connections between only some of the letters and sounds in words, often only the first and final letter-sounds
- .Full alphabetic-Children can form complete connections between letters in written words and phonemes in pronunciations
- .Consolidated alphabetic-Readers operate with multi-letter units that may be morphemes,syllables, or subsyllabic units such as onsets and rimes. Common
- spelling patterns become consolidated into letter chunks, and these chunks make it easier to read words.
The smallest unit of sound within our language system. A phoneme combines with other phonemes to make words.
The ability to notice, think about, or manipulate the individual phonemes (sounds) in words. It is the ability to understand that sounds in spoken language work together to make words. This term is used to refer to the highest level of phonological awareness: awareness of individual phonemes in words.
- One’s sensitivity to, or explicit awareness of, the phonological structure of words in one’s language. This is an “umbrella” term that is used to refer to a student’s sensitivity to any aspect of phonological
- structure in language. It encompasses awareness of individual words in sentences, syllables, and onset-rime segments, as well as awareness of
- individual phonemes.
Refers to schema, the knowledge and experience that readers bring to the text.
Reading with expression, proper intonation, and phrasing. This helps readers to sound as if they are speaking the part they are reading. It is also this element of fluency that sets it apart from automaticity.
Refers to independent, instructional, and frustrational levels of text reading.
- Refers to the support that is given to students in order for them to arrive at the correct answer. This support may occur as immediate, specific feedback that a teacher offers during student practice. For instance, the assistance the teacher offers may include giving
- encouragement or cues, breaking the problem down into smaller steps, using a graphic organizer, or providing an example. Scaffolding may be embedded in the features of the instructional design such as starting with simpler skills and building progressively to more difficult skills.Providing the student temporary instructional support assists them in achieving what they could not otherwise have done alone.
Refers to prior knowledge, the knowledge and experience that readers bring to the text.
These are words that are recognized immediately. Sometimes sight words are thought to be irregular, or high frequency words (e.g., the Dolch and Fry lists). However, any word that is recognized automatically is a sight word. These words may be phonetically regular or irregular.
A procedure for teaching students to read words formed with prefixes, suffixes, or other meaningful word parts.
A segment of a word that contains one vowel sound. The vowel may or may not be preceded and/or followed by a consonant.
- Refers to all of the words of our language. One must know words to communicate effectively. Vocabulary is important to reading comprehension because readers cannot understand what they are reading without knowing what most of the words mean. Vocabulary development refers to stored information about the meanings and pronunciation of words necessary for communication. Four types of vocabulary include
- listening, speaking, reading and writing
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