patho

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Author:
clarissa1
ID:
7550
Filename:
patho
Updated:
2010-02-21 20:33:50
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neuro
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neuro
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  1. myelinate cns axons
    oligodendrocytes
  2. provide structural framework
    oligodendrocytes
  3. remove cell debris, wastes, and pathogens by phagocytosis
    microglia
  4. form scar tissue after injury
    astrocytes
  5. absorb and recycle neurotransmitters
    astrocytes
  6. regulate ion, nutrient, and dissolved gas concentrations
    astrocytes
  7. provide structural support
    astrocytes
  8. maintain blood barrier
    astrocytes
  9. sensory input goes to the sensory
    receptor
  10. PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM (PNS) consists of:
    CRANIAL + SPINAL NERVES
  11. CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM (CNS) consists of:
    BRAIN + SPINAL CORD
    BRAIN + SPINAL CORD
  12. THE NERVOUS SYSTEM IS CLASSICALLY DIVIDED INTO:
    • CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM (CNS) BRAIN + SPINAL CORD
    • PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM (PNS) CRANIAL + SPINAL NERVES
  13. THE blankCONSISTS OF A SELECTIVE BARRIER BETWEEN THE INTRAVASCULAR SPACE AND THE BRAIN WHICH PREVENTS THE PENETRATION OF CERTAIN SUBST. INTO THE CEREBRAL SPACE
  14. THE BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER CONSISTS OF A SELECTIVE BARRIER BETWEEN THE INTRAVASCULAR SPACE AND THE BRAIN WHICH PREVENTS THE PENETRATION OF CERTAIN SUBST. INTO THE CEREBRAL SPACE
  15. CEREBRAL BLOOD FLOW IS
    AUTO-REGULATED BY LOCAL MET. FACTORS WITH [], [] AND [] AS THE MOST IMPORTANT ONES.
    [CO2], [H+] AND [O2]
  16. CAN DETECT CHANGES IN THE ANGLE OF THE HEAD OF A COUPLE OF HAIRS WIDTH
    VESTIBULAR SYSTEM
  17. TOUCH
    • 5 MILLIONS SENSORS IN THE SKIN.
    • EACH HAIR HAS ONE NERVE IN THE ROOT-SO SENSITIVE THAT IT CAN REACT TO DUST.
    • THE SENSORS IN THE TONGUE CAN DETECT 9 000 DIFFERENT CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES.
  18. SMELL
    • CAN DETECT 10 000 DIFFERENT SMELLS (SOME OF THEM CAN’T BE DESCRIBED)
    • SMELL SIGNALS ARE FED TO THE AREA CONTROLLING EMOTION AND MEMORY Þ
    • SMELL IS GOOD TO BRING BACK MEMORIES AND INFLUENCE THE MOOD.
  19. 85 CUBIC INCHES
    OF SPACE INSIDE THE SKULL
  20. THE NEURONS OF THE CNS ARE VERY DEPENDENT ON blank METABOLISM.
    THE NEURONS OF THE CNS ARE VERY DEPENDENT ON AEROBIC METABOLISM.
  21. WITHOUT BLOOD FLOW FOR blank THE BRAIN IS REDUCED TO A STATE OF UNCONSCIOUSNESS

    AFTER blank, THIS STATE IS USUALLY IRREVERSIBLE.
    • WITHOUT BLOOD FLOW FOR 20 sec. THE BRAIN IS REDUCED TO A STATE OF UNCONSCIOUSNESS
    • AFTER 4-5 MINUTES, THIS STATE IS USUALLY IRREVERSIBLE.
  22. DESPITE BEING JUST blank% OF THE BODY WEIGHT (brain)
    2
  23. DESPITE BEING JUST 2% OF THE BODY WEIGHT,THE BRAIN USES ± blank OF THE TOTAL CARDIAC OUTPUT
    • THE BRAIN USES ± 15% OF THE
    • TOTAL CARDIAC OUTPUT
    • AND CONSUMES 20% OF THE TOTAL AVAILABLE O2.
  24. CEREBRAL BLOOD FLOW IS
    AUTO-REGULATED BY blank METabolism
    • CEREBRAL BLOOD FLOW IS
    • AUTO-REGULATED BY LOCAL MET
  25. BLOOD SUPPLY IS TYPICALLY DETERMINED BY THEblank ACTIVITY
    BLOOD SUPPLY IS TYPICALLY DETERMINED BY THE METABOLIC ACTIVITY
  26. MASSIVE INFARCTION
    • EXTENDED FLOWS
    • BELOW 15 ml/100g/min
    • ÞMASSIVE INFARCTION
  27. MORE METABOLICALLY ACTIVE blankMATTER HAS AblankFLOW THAN the blank MATTER
    MORE METABOLICALLY ACTIVE GRAY MATTER HAS A increased FLOW THAN THE WHITE MATTER
  28. THERE'RE CERTAIN NEURONS IN THE CNS WHICH ARE MORE VULNERABLE TO HYPOXIA.
    (SELECTED LAYERS OF THE HIPPOCAMPUS AND CEREBELLAR AND CEREBRAL CORTICES)
  29. TOTAL CEREBRAL BLOOD FLOW IS ± blankml/min SUPPLIED BY THE TWO INTERNAL CAROTID ART. AND THE BASILAR ARTERY,
    TOTAL CEREBRAL BLOOD FLOW IS ± 750ml/min SUPPLIED BY THE TWO INTERNAL CAROTID ART. AND THE BASILAR ARTERY,
  30. TOTAL CEREBRAL BLOOD FLOW IS ± 750 ml/min SUPPLIED BY THE TWO blank ART. AND blankTHE ARTERY,
    INTERNAL CAROTID, basiliar
  31. TOTAL CEREBRAL BLOOD FLOW IS ± 750 ml/min SUPPLIED BY THE TWO INTERNAL CAROTID ART. AND THE BASILAR ARTERY,
    EACH SUPPLYING
    ± blankml/min WITH TOTAL INTRACRANIAL BLOOD VOL. OF 100-150 ml AT ANY GIVEN TIME
    • TOTAL CEREBRAL BLOOD FLOW IS ± 750 ml/min SUPPLIED BY THE TWO INTERNAL CAROTID ART. AND THE BASILAR ARTERY,
    • EACH SUPPLYING
    • ± 250ml/min WITH TOTAL INTRACRANIAL BLOOD VOL. OF 100-150 ml AT ANY GIVEN TIME
  32. INTRACRANIAL CIRCULATING POOL TURNS OVER blanktimes/min.
    INTRACRANIAL CIRCULATING POOL TURNS OVER 5-7 times/min.
  33. TOTAL INTRACRANIAL BLOOD VOL. OF blankml AT ANY GIVEN TIME
    TOTAL INTRACRANIAL BLOOD VOL. OF 100-150 ml AT ANY GIVEN TIME
  34. AVERAGE CEREBRAL BLOOD FLOW
    = blank OF BRAIN TISSUE/min.
    • AVERAGE CEREBRAL BLOOD FLOW
    • = 55 ml/100g OF BRAIN TISSUE/min.
  35. ISCHEMIA
    IF¯if blood flow decreased TO LESS THAN
    • IF¯blood flow decreased TO LESS THAN 30-35ml/100g/min
    • Þ ISCHEMIA
  36. INFARCTION
    • IF blood flow BELOW 20 ml/100g/min
    • Þ INFARCTION
  37. THE BRAIN USES ± blank% OF THE TOTAL CARDIAC OUTPUT
    15
  38. THE BRAIN USES CONSUMES blank% OF THE TOTAL AVAILABLE O2.
    20
  39. THE BRAIN USES ± 15% OF THE TOTAL CARDIAC OUTPUT AND CONSUMES blank%OF THE TOTAL AVAILABLE O2.
    THE BRAIN USES ± 15% OF THE TOTAL CARDIAC OUTPUT AND CONSUMES 20% OF THE TOTAL AVAILABLE O2.
  40. line ventricles (brain) and central canal (spinal cavity)
    ependymal cells
  41. assisting in producing, circulating and monitoring of cerbral spinal fluid
    ependymal cells
  42. cells in the central nervous system
    • astrocytes
    • oligodendrocytes
    • microglia
    • ependymal cells
  43. cells in the peripheral nervous system
    • schwann cells
    • satellite cells
  44. surround neuron cell body in ganglia
    satellite cell
  45. surround all axons in pns
    schwann cell
  46. responsible for myelination of peripheral axons
    schwann cell
  47. participate in repair process after injury
    schwann cell
  48. fluid in subdural space
    serous fluid
  49. fluid in subarachnoid space
    csf fluid
  50. periosteum and dura mater
    one functional layer
  51. between dura mater and arachnoid mater
    subdural space
  52. between arachnoid mater and pia mater
    subarachnoid space
  53. vessels in brain located in
    subarachnoid space
  54. bound tightly to brain
    directly attached to brain surface and not removable
    pia mater
  55. potential space
    subdural space
  56. dural venous sinus ( 2 parts) with falx cerbri in between
    superior and inferior sagittal sinus
  57. 2 spaces
    subdural and subarachnoid
  58. cerebrum divided into
    • dorsal (superior)
    • ventral (inferior)
  59. brainsten divided into
    • anterior(ventral)
    • posterior (dorsal)
  60. deep sulcus
    fissure
  61. precentral gyrus
    motor cortex
  62. somatic sensory cortex
    postcentral gyrus
  63. ventricles
    Ventricles: Lateral ventricles (2), third ventricle, fourth ventricle
  64. produce CSF which fills ventricles and other parts of brain and spinal cord
  65. Choroid plexuses
  66. Substances do not pass between cells but through due to tight junctions of blood endothelial cells
    Blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier
  67. Similar to serum with most of proteins removed
    csf
  68. Bathes brain and spinal cord
    csf
  69. Provides a protective cushion around CNS
    csf
  70. •Produced by ependymal cells
    csf
  71. •Provides some nutrients to CNS tissues
    csf
  72. connective tissue membranes
    • dura mater (superficial)
    • arachnoid mater
    • pia mater (bound tightly to the brain)
    • spaces
    • subdural (serous fluid)
    • subarachnoid(csf)
  73. CONSISTS ON THE ENTIRE NEURONAL CIRCUITRY THAT CONTROLS EMOTIONAL BEHAVIOR AND MOTIVATIONAL DRIVES
    THE LIMBIC SYSTEM
  74. CINGULATE GYRUS, SEPTAL AREA AND PARAHIPPOCAMPAL GYRUS
    TELENCEPHALON
  75. IT’S A COLLECTION OF
    INTERCONNECTED BUT NOT CONTIGUOUS
    STRUCTURES IN THE TELENCEPHALON (CINGULATE GYRUS, SEPTAL AREA AND PARAHIPPOCAMPAL GYRUS), DIENCEPHALON AND BRAIN STEM
    limbic system
  76. corpus striatum (basal nuclei)
    • caudate nucleus
    • lentiform nucleus
  77. putamen
    globus pallidus
    lentiform nucleus
  78. regions of the brain
    • cerbral hemisphere
    • cerebellum
    • diencephalon
    • brainstem
  79. dura mater - 2 layers
    • periosteal
    • meningeal

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