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2010-02-21 13:00:10

Vocab 1
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  1. Filling
    (weft or woof) in weaving, the crosswise yarn(s) that interlace at right angles with the lengthwise warp.
  2. Shuttle
    • Device on a loom to carry the filling yarn through the shed to interlace it with the warp
    • (shed shoots through the shuttle)
  3. Grain
    The alignment of vertical and horizontal elements in a fabric to form a right-angle relationship
  4. Leno
    Open weave used for casements, which achieves extra stability by twisting the warp yarns around each other and inserting the filling yarn.
  5. Pile
    Pile weave: construction in which cut or uncut loops protrude from the ground cloth.
  6. Rib
    Raid ridge running lengthwise, crosswise, or diagonally on fabric
  7. Alpaca
    Long, fine, natural protein hair fiber obtained from the domesticated south American Alpaca
  8. Spandex
    Synthetic elastic fibers composed of segmented polyurethane
  9. Linen
    • Natural cellulose yarn made from flax fibers
    • Noted for strength, cool hand, and luster; low resilience
  10. Slub
    Lump or knot in a yarn: may be a defect or pruposely spun to produce a textured surface in a cloth
  11. Base
    Part of novelty yarns
  12. Spindle
    Twisting the yarns
  13. Merino
    • Breed of sheep yielding a high grade wool used for fine woolen and worsted cloth.
    • Very soft
  14. Flocked
    Fabric in which the entire surface is covered with flocking to produce a velvet-like / suade-like texture
  15. Spinnerette
    Metal disc with numerous fine holes which a chamical solution is extruded to produce synthetic fibers
  16. Polyester
    Manufactured fiber in which the fiber-forming substance is a long-chain syntehtic polymer composed on a complex ester.
  17. Gimp
    • Silk / metallic yarn spiral-wrapped closely around an inner core to cover it completely.
    • Has different sized loops twisted back on it.
  18. Staple
    Natural or manufactured fiber that has a relatively short length
  19. Felt
    Non-woven fabric made of fibers joined through the application of heat, agitation, and moisture, or by mechanical treatment.
  20. Synthetic
    • Textile fiber made from a petrochemical rather than a natural base
    • (Polyester, nylon, olefin, etc)
  21. Balanced
    Warp and weft and 1:1
  22. Pick
    In weaving (loom), a single passage of filling yarn through the warp shed.
  23. Mineral
    Natural or manufactured fiber derived from a mineral, such as asbestor or fiberglass
  24. Cloth
    • Any pliable material whether woven, knitted, felted, knotted, or extruded
    • Ex. thread count
  25. Carding
    Process used for all natural fibers, in which they are seperated and brought into general alignment prior to pricing.
  26. Mohair
    Processed fiber of the long, silky hair of the Angora goat.
  27. Tow
    • Short or broken fiber of flax, hemp, or synthetic materials used for yarn, twine, or stuffing.
    • Roping
  28. Knot
    Weaving flas; broken yarns which are tied, and usually pulled through to the back of the fabric
  29. Triacetate
    Manufactured fiber that is a modification of acetate with a higher ratio of acetate to cellulose.
  30. Harness
    Rectangular frame on a loom that holds the heddles (wires) through which the warp yarns pass.
  31. Sericulture
    Raising of silkworms and production of silk
  32. Ramie
    • Fine, oriental bast fiber.
    • Cellulose fiber.
  33. Trevira
    Brand name for Polyester
  34. Pilling
    As a fiber breaks up, the two free ends tend to roll back in the opposite directions, forming a fuzzy ball on the fabric surface
  35. Viscose
    • Most common rayon formed by converting cellulose into a soluble form and regenerating it into a fiber
    • Solution of Rayon.
  36. Cord
    A fabric with a pronounced horizontal or vertical rib
  37. Novelty Yarns
    Yarns constructed in such a way as to produce a bulky or uneven or otherwise special appearance.
  38. Jacquard
    • Attachment that uses a punched card system to raise and lower single heddles (wires).
    • Produces complex patterns such as tapestry and brocade.
  39. Twist
    • The tightness and direction of the twist spun into a yarn.
    • S-twist: clockwise twist, most common
    • Z-twist: counter-clockwise twist
  40. Chenille
    A fuzzy caterpillar-like yarn of cotton or manufactured fibers.
  41. Woof
    Threads that run crosswise in a woven fabric, at right angles to the warp threads.
  42. Bouclé
    3 ply yarn with tight loops projecting from strand at regular intervals similar to loop and curl yarns.
  43. Polymer
    Chamical compound consisting of repeating monomers joined end to end to form a polymer chain
  44. Binder
    Holds base and effect yarns together
  45. Lappet
    • 3-element woven fabric simlar to discontinuousbrocade.
    • Tiny little repeated patterns.
  46. Sisal
    Strong natural cellulose fiber used in making cord and matting
  47. Dye Affinity
    • The susceptibility of a fiber to various dye-stuffs.
    • How a fiber accepts a dye.
  48. Roving
    Bundle of fiber that are carded and combed and arranged in parallel alignment before spinning
  49. Acetate
    • A manufactured fiber composed of acetylated cellulose.
    • Cellulose fiber.
  50. Cellulose
    • Organic fibrous substance found in all vegetation that is the basic constituent of both natural and manufactured fibers.
    • Ex. cotton, linen, jute, rayon.
  51. Twill
    Basic weave taht produces a surface of diagonal lines by passing filling threads over 2 or more ends in a regular progression.
  52. Modacrylic
    A modified acrylic fiber composed of copolymers of acrylonitrile and other materials such as vinyl chloride, which enable the fiber to be softened at low temperatures.
  53. Unbalanced
    Warp and weft in yarns are uneven.
  54. Beetling
    Beating fabric
  55. Plain
    Simplest method of interlacing warp and weft yarns to make cloth
  56. Acrylic
    Fiber composed of acrylontrile units which are derived from petrochemical by-products
  57. Filament
    Fiber of indefinite length, either natural (silk) or manufactured
  58. Glass
    Raw material from which fiberglass fibers are made
  59. Cotton
    Cellulosic fiber
  60. Retting
    • The rotting of flax.
    • Soaking the bast fiber plants to permit bacterial or chemical breakdown of the other bark that loosens the fibers.
  61. Angora
    Goat native to Turkey from which the natural protein fiber, mohair, is obtained; a wool variant.
  62. Effect
    • Yarn that controls design or appearance, decorative.
    • (Novelty or complex yarn)
  63. Ply
    A single strand of yarn
  64. Polypropylene
    Olefin fiber made of propylene
  65. Nub
    • Random clot of short, dense fibers incorporated durig spinning.
    • Novelty yarn.
  66. Reed
    Comb-like device on a loom through which the warp ends pass
  67. Satin
    • Warp-faced fabric in a satin weave.
    • Basic weave in which the fabric face is composed almost entirely of warm or filling floats, producing a smooth, lustrous surface.
  68. Flax
    Plant from which linen is produced
  69. Selvage
    Reinforced edge on either side of a woven or flat knitted cloth, finished to prevent raveling.
  70. Ratiné
    A novelty yarn constructed by twisting a heavy yarn around a fine yarn
  71. Silk
    Natural protein fiber unwound from the cocoon of the silkworm
  72. Warp
    Lengthwise yarns in a woven fabric, running vertically through the loom parallel to the selvages
  73. Worsted
    Smooth, compact yarns spun from carded and combed long wool fibers. Worsted fibers are more closely constructed and have smoother finishes than woolens.
  74. Dobby
    A mechanical loom attachment that can regulate as many as 40 harnesses to produce small, geometric patterns
  75. Olefin
    Synthetic fibers produced from either polyethylene or polypropylene.
  76. Horse Hair
    Narrow ulholstery fabric woven with a filling of long, single tail hairs.
  77. Metallic
    Any fiber, yarn, or fabric using a metal (gold, aluminum, steel, etc) as part of its structure
  78. Weave
    Structural pattern in which yarns are interlaced to produce fabric
  79. Beater
    Movable frame on a loom that holds the read and packs the filling yarns into place
  80. Loom
    Machine that produces woven textiles by interlacing warp and filling yarns at right angles to each other
  81. Weft
    Horizontal or crosswise element in a woven cloth
  82. Combing
    The process of making carded fibers parallel and removing simpurities and short fibers before spinning
  83. Wool
    Fuzzy, loosely twisted yarn spun from carded short wool fibers
  84. Basket
    Balanced plain weave in which two or more warp yarns interlace with two or more filling yarns.
  85. Jute
    Course, natural, cellulose fiber used primarily in burlap and carpet backing
  86. Yarn
    Any form of spun, twisted or extruded fibers, natural or manufactured, that can be used in weaving, knitting, or knotting
  87. Mercerization
    Caustic soda treatment for cloth and linen, which makes the yarn or cloth stronger, and increases luster and dye affinity
  88. Nylon
    Synthetic polyamide fiber
  89. Shed
    • The space formed as the harnesses of a loom raise some warp yarns and lower other, through which the shuttle passes to lay in the filling.
    • Shed shoots through the shuttle.
  90. Degumming
    Removal of natural gums from silk yarn or fabric by boiling in a mild alkaline solution.