sleep aids/otic/autoimmune disorders

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  1. What neurotransmitters control sleep? How?
    • Serotonin and Norepinephrine
    • Keep parts of the brain active while we are asleep
    • Adenosine
    • Builds up while we are awake and causes drowsiness, broken down while we are asleep
  2. How many sleep stages exist?
    5 (1-4 and REM)
  3. 50% of our sleep is spent in what stage?
    Stage 2
  4. 20% of our sleep is spent in what stage?
  5. What stage: light sleep, awaken easily, eye movement slows?
    Stage 1
  6. In what stage does eye movement stop and the brain waves are slower?
    Stage 2
  7. In what stage is there no eye movement and brain waves continue to slower?
    Stage 3
  8. What stage is considered "deep" sleep?
    Stage 4
  9. Describe the REM stage.
    • Breathing rapid/shallow
    • Eyes jerk
    • Limbs paralyzed
    • HR/BP increased
    • Male erections
    • Dreams
  10. What are some things that affect sleep?
    • Caffeine
    • Antidepressants
    • Smoking
    • Alcohol
    • Too hot/cold
  11. When do women need more sleep?
    In the first trimester of pregnancy.
  12. How many hours of sleep does an average person get?
    7-8 hours
  13. What are some symptoms of too little sleep?
    • Hand/eye coordination impairment
    • Hallucinations
    • Lack of concentration
    • Unable to function
  14. What are 4 types of sleep disorders?
    • Insomnia
    • Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA)
    • Restless Legs Syndrome
    • Narcolepsy
  15. What percentage of women have insomnia? Men?
    • 40%
    • 30%
  16. What is a factor that increases the chances of insomnia?
    Increase in age
  17. What are symptoms of insomnia disorders?
    • Difficulty falling asleep
    • Waking during sleep
    • Early-morning awakenings
    • Produces impairment in next-day activities
  18. What are some tips for a goodnight sleep?
    Set a night-time schedule, avoid naps, exercise during the day, relax before bed, sleep until sunlight, don't lie in bed awake, control room temp
  19. What are 3 Nonbenzodiazepine GABAergic Sedatives?
    • Ambien (CR)
    • Lunesta
    • Sonata (Zaleplon)
  20. What are example classes of sleep medications?
    • Nonbenzodiazepine GABAergic sedatives
    • Benzodiazepines (reduce stages 3 and 4)
    • Antihistamines
    • Antidepressants: tricyclic antidepressants, Mirtazapine, Trazodone)
    • Melatonin: Rozerem (Ramelteon)
  21. What class is Zolpidem?
    Non-benzodiazepine hypnotic
  22. Is Zolpidem absorbed rapidly or slowly from the GI tract? What is the onset of action?When should it be taken?
    • Rapid absorption and a short elimination half-life
    • Onset of action = 30 minutes
    • Take immediately before bedtime.
  23. What are the effects of benzodiazepines?
    Affect GABA--> induces sleep
  24. What antihistamines are commonly used for a sleep aid? What is a side effect?
    • Diphenhydramine, Doxylamine
    • Next day drowsiness
  25. What is sleep apnea?
    A serious sleep disorder in which breathing repeatedly stops and starts
  26. What are some symptoms of sleep apnea?
    Excessive daytime sleepiness, loud snoring, observed episodes of breathing cessation during sleep, abrupt awakenings accompanied by SOB, waken with a dry mouth or sore throat, morning headache, difficulty staying asleep, uncontrollable hypertension
  27. What are risk factors for sleep apnea?
    • Overweight
    • Size of neck circumference
    • Hypertension
    • Narrow airway
    • Male
    • > 65 years of age
    • Using alcohol or smoking
  28. What is a polysomnogram?
    Sleep study for sleep apnea that records brain and body activity during sleep to help diagnose and treat sleep disorders
  29. What are treatment options for OSA?
    • Positional therapy
    • Weight loss
    • Avoid alcohol
    • Surgery
    • CPAP
  30. What is conjunctivitis?
    Redness or irritation of the membranes on the inner part of the eyelids and the membranes covering the whites of the eye.
  31. What are causes of pink eye?
    • bacteria
    • viruses
    • allergy-provoking agents
    • irritants
    • toxic agents
    • underlying diseases
  32. What are common symptoms of pink eye?
    • watery eyes and discharge
    • irritation
    • usually starts with one eye and then spreads
  33. What treatment options are available for bacterial pink eye?
    • Vigamox (Moxifloxacin)
    • Zymar (Gatifloxacin)
    • TobraDex (Tobramycin with Dexamethasone)
    • Ciloxan (Ciprofloxacin)
  34. What treatment option is available for allergic pink eye?
    Patanol (olopatadine)
  35. What are the two types of glaucoma?
    • Open angle
    • Closed angle (emergency)
  36. What causes glaucoma?
    Damage to the optic nerve causes an increase in intraocular pressure which results in vision loss
  37. Are there always symptoms present for glaucoma?
  38. What type of ophthalmic drops are used in treating glaucoma?
    • Beta-blockers
    • Adrenergics
    • Cholinergics
    • Alpha Agonists
    • Prostaglandin Analogs
    • Cholinesterase Inhibitors
  39. Can eyedrops for glaucoma be used with contacts?
    No--must be removed for 15 minutes
  40. List some of the autoimmune disorders.
    • Addison's disease
    • Type 1 diabetes
    • Lupus
    • MS
    • Grave's disease
    • Celiac disease
    • Pernicious anemia
    • Rheumatoid arthritis
    • Chrohn's disease
  41. How do we treat autoimmune diseases?
    • Decrease symptoms and control the process
    • Reduce the immune response
  42. What are some common immunosuppressant medications?
    • Azathioprine
    • Cyclophosphamide
    • Cylcosporine
    • Methotrexate
  43. What are the strongest drugs available to reduce inflammation and decrease the body's ability to fight infection?
  44. How are corticosteroids often seen?
    • Creams and ointments
    • Asthma medications
  45. What are counseling points for corticosteroids?
    • Tapered Dose
    • Do not discontinue abruptly
    • Take with food
    • Many side effects
  46. Ambien
    • Zolpidem
    • Insomnia
  47. Lunesta
    • Eszopiclone
    • Insomnia
  48. Xalatan
    • Latanoprost
    • Glaucoma
  49. Travatan
    • Travoprost
    • Glaucoma
  50. Alphagan
    • Brimonidine
    • Glaucoma
  51. Vigamox
    • Moxifloxacin
    • Conjunctivitis
  52. Zymar
    • Gatifloxacin
    • Conjunctivitis
  53. Patanol
    • Olopatadine
    • Conjunctivits
  54. Medrol
    • Methylprednisolone
    • Autoimmune disorders
  55. Sterapred/Deltasone
    • Prednisone
    • Autoimmune disorders
  56. Decadron
    • Dexamethasone
    • Autoimmune disorders
Card Set
sleep aids/otic/autoimmune disorders
Lecture 8
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