Cells Chapter 6
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Give an example of: Fungi. Protists. Bacteria. Plants. Animals
- Fungi: Field mushrooms, bakers yeast.
- Protists: Amoebas and paramecia
- Bacteria: E. Coli
- Plant: Flower
- Animal: Dog
How do plant- like protists obtain nutrients?
How do animal like protist obtain nutrients.
/most often eat othe organisms
Give an example of a plant-like protist. Why?
Animal like. Why?
- p- Euglena
- a- Amoeba and paramecia
What are used as a waste product for the chemical reactions that allow organisms to obtain energy from food?
Use oxygen aand carbon dioxide as a waste product.
What type of organisms can survive without oxygen?
SOME micro organisms
What is the process of gas exchange in unicellular organisms?
Oxygen diffuses across the cell membrane into the cell. Carbon dioxide diffuses out of the cell once the concentration of carbon dioxide is higher inside the cell than it is outside of the cell.
How can humans detect changes in the environment?
The five senses. Sight, touch, hearing, smell and taste
In what two ways do unicellular organisms move?
Movement and locomotion.
What is movement?
Movement is a change in the shape or figure of all or part of an organism; a characteristic of living things.
What is locomotion?
locomotion is movement that takes an object from one place in its environment to another.
What do unicellular organisms that live in water ( which most do) rely on?
Pseudopods, cilia and flagella
What is cell differentiation?
The process by which a cell becomes specialized to preform a specific function.
What are the four major differentiated cells?
Muscle, epithelial, fat and nerve cells.
How are differentiated cells organized?
according to the function they preform
What is a tissue?
a group of differentiated cells that wor together to preform a specific function
What are the 4 major types of tissue?
Epithelial, connective, nerve and muscle tissue
Where can epithelial tissue be found in humans?
found covering the external surfaces of the body, and lining the surfaces of structures such as the mouth, heart, liver and eyes.
Where can epithelial tissue be found in plants?
surrounding the structures
What is an organ?
two or more tissues that work together to preform one or more functions
What is the largest organ in the body?
What is an organ system?
A group of organs that work together to perform related functions.
What are the 5 major animal organ systems?
Musculoskeletal, circulatory, respiratory, nervous and digestive system.
5 major plant organ systems?
- Shoot system (contains flower, stem, leaves)
- Root system (roots)
What is the major function of the circulatory systen?
Transports nutrients, dissolved gases (oxygen, carbon dioxide) and wastes to and from individual cells in the organism
What is the major function of the respiratory system?
Exchanges oxygen and carbon dioxide between blood and the external environment.
What is the major function of the digestive system?
Breaks food down into small particles called nutrients, that can be transported by the circulatory system to al cells of the body
What are the major functions of the Musculoskeletal system?
- Provides structural support to the body.
- Protects internal structures from the outside environment
- Plays a role in movement and locomotion
What are the main functions of the nervous system?
- Responds to changes in the internal and external environment of the body.
- Coordinates the functions of all other organ systems
What are the major organs of the Circulatory system?
Heart, blood, blood vessels
What are the major organs of the respiratory system?
Lungs, windpipe, blood vessels
What are the major organs of the digestive system?
Mouth, stomach, esophagus, liver, pancreas, small and large intestines, anus
What are the major organs of the musculoskeletal system?
What are the major organs of the nervous system?
Brain, spinal cord, sensory organs (eyes, ears, nose, taste buds
Out of Epithelial, muscle, nerve and connective tissue, what one is not in the nervous system?
label each system and organ
Give two examples of how cells work together.
- The respiratory, circulatory and digestive system work together to meet the needs of Oxygen and nutriens.
- White blood cells, red blood cells and platelets work together to make blood
What is the process of digestion in humans?
- Food enters the mouth and is chewed up
- Swalling moves food into esophagus
- Food then travels to the stomach
- muscles then move food into the intestines
- Nutrients are absorbed into the blood vessels.
- Undigest food to anus
The process of nutrition in earthworms.
- Earthworms suck food usin pharynx.
- Esophagus pushes food into crop
- Gizzard breaks down food.
- Moves to intestine which chemials are absorbed.
- To the anus undigested food goes
process of nutrition in plants
- Roots absorb water and nutrients from soil
- Xylem Vessels transport the water and nutrients to the other parts of the plant
- Water is carried up through the shoot system to the leaves of the plant
- Plant then makes food by photosynthesis
- Phloem vessels transport food from the leaves to the rest of the plant.
- Extra sugar to the roots for storage
gas exchange in vertebrates?
- mouth/nose > trachea> bronchi> bronchioles> alveoli.
- Oxygen diffuses into body & carbon dioxide out of body
gas exchange in aquatic vertabrate
- Underwater blood vessels in cells of moist outer skin allow oxygen to diffuse from water into bloodstream
- in the same way carbon dioxide diffuses out of a cell
GAS E in plants
- Use stomates for gas exchange. (microscopic pores)
- controll the movement of gasses and water vapour into and out of the plant.
where is a stomate located?
found on the bottom surface of a leaf but can also be found in other parts of the plant including the stem
what do nerve cells do?
Specialized to process and transmit info.
how does a human respond to changes in the environment?
nervous systems send signals to the nerve cells , signals are sent to the brain where they are processed and a response is made.
how do plants respond to changes in its environment?
specialized cells detect the change
2 examples of how unicellukar organisms can help us. Can not help us.
- Can- Penicillen is made out of fungus. Penicillen helps us to get better when sick.
- Fungi and bacteria are decomposers therefore they can release useful nutrients and carbon dioxide in the air.
- CANNOT- Micro organisms can cause Malaria , caused by a unicellular protist.
- Black Plague caused by bacteria
What infections can be treated with antibiotics?
What is the cause of a malignant tumor?
Cells divide and form the tumor. After the tumor releases cancerous cells into the blood stream.
How do bones and muscles work together to allow locomotion?
This works because the muscles are attached to the bones, which move the bones when the muscles contract.
How do unicellular organisms respond to changes in their environment?
sense there surroundings.
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