Wildlife Management

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Author:
klokot
ID:
75556
Filename:
Wildlife Management
Updated:
2011-03-28 16:30:06
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Wildlife Management
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Description:
Wildlife Management
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  1. cyclic populations
    • peak and valley over a short period of time
    • not random
    • they are predictable
  2. migration
    movement from one place to another
  3. habituation
    animals beome used to unnatural components in their environment.

    Ex- song birds and bird feeders
  4. ethogram
    a tool used to document animal behavior
  5. circadian rhythm
    a pattern of movement in animals that occurs every 24hrs
  6. ethology
    the study of animal behavior
  7. animal behavior
    the combination between innate and instinctive responses to stimuli in the environment
  8. irruptive populations
    • they have highs then crash
    • unpredictable
  9. stable populations
    • they are constant year to year
    • no dramatic changes
  10. compensatory mortality
    if not killed by one thing something else will

    ex- hunting
  11. environmental resistance
    physical and biological factors preventing a species from reproducing at its maximum rate
  12. population dynamics
    short and long term changes in size and age composition of populations
  13. characteristics of a population
    • density
    • birth rate/death rate
    • age structure
    • sex ratio
    • reproductive potential
  14. population
    group of organisms of the same species occupying a defined area during a specific time
  15. lingual side
    teeth closest to the tongue
  16. buccal side
    teeth closest to the cheek
  17. dentine
    brown coloration in tooth
  18. crest
    sharp sides of each tooth
  19. cusps
    tooth sections
  20. buffer species
    alternate species that decreases predation pressure on another species
  21. disease
    impairement that interferes with normal function
  22. etiology
    study of the cause of disease
  23. epizootic
    endemic in wildlife
  24. zoonotic
    disease in animals that infect humans
  25. mortality rate
    rate at which animals are dying in a population
  26. welfare factors
    qualities of the environment that can either negatively or positively affect mortality

    ex- weather, food, cover and water
  27. decimating factors
    any direct cause in the reduction of population numbers

    ex- starvation, hunting
  28. density independent mortality
    not related in its effect to the number of individuals in the population

    ex- poor climate
  29. density dependent mortality
    the higher the density the greater the number of individuals and percentage of population die

    ex- starvation, disease, hunting
  30. interaction rate
    frequency of negative social interactions which occur between individuals in a population per unit of time
  31. monogamous
    mate for life
  32. polygamous
    male mates with multiple females
  33. polyandrous
    female mates with multiple males
  34. promiscuous
    both sexes have multiple partners
  35. precocial
    covered with fur or feathers and capable of moving about when first hatched or born
  36. altricial
    born naked, blind and helpless
  37. sex ratio
    number of males to females
  38. gestation period
    how long the female is pregnant
  39. birth rate
    births times 100 females in a population
  40. natality rate
    birth/time
  41. reproductive rate
    number of young per adult female in a population
  42. cohort
    group of organisms sharing a particular demographic characteristic

    ex- age class
  43. 3 types of distribution
    • uniform
    • random- nothing is truely random
    • clumped
  44. density
    the number of animals per unit area
  45. problems in estimating density
    • must count all animals
    • determine area occupied
    • density is constantly changing
  46. carrying capacity
    the maximum number of animals a habitat can support successfully
  47. juxtaposition
    occurance of cover types close together
  48. cruising radius
    distance between locations an animal will travel to obtain the required material components of the habitat
  49. home range
    an area where an animal will conduct its daily activities
  50. territory
    an area an animal will defend against others of the same species
  51. biological symbolizim
    males expressing dominance over other males
  52. leks
    communial sites where males gather to court a female
  53. cover types
    specific type of vegatation or physical features which exist as a component of habitat
  54. diversity
    variety of vegatation and mixing cover types
  55. edge
    where to vegatations or cover types come together
  56. management
    manipulating habitat for the benefit of a particular species
  57. succession
    replacement of one community by another
  58. optimal foraging strategy
    best return using as less energy expended as possible
  59. co-evolution
    joint evolution of 2 or more organisms with close ecological relationships but no exchange of genes
  60. direct manipulation
    hunting, trapping and re-introduction
  61. indirect manipulation
    managing habitat
  62. immigration
    entering one area from another
  63. emmigration
    leaving one area for another

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