Test 2 Study Guide

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Test 2 Study Guide
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  1. BBA 360 Study Guide
    Exam II
  2. What are the guidelines for an effective meeting?
    • 1. Prepare
    • 2. Start on Time
    • 3. Who is doing what? (facilitator, time keeper, note taker)
    • 4. Improving the process�evaluation (what works what doesn�t)
  3. Team leader:
    orchestrates team activities, maintains team records, leads improvement efforts, serves as communication link with the rest of the organization
  4. Facilitator: responsible for keeping the meeting focused and moving smoothly.
    opens the meeting
  5. Responsibilities of Meeting Facilitator:
    • 1. reviews agenda
    • 2. makes sure someone is taking notes
    • 3. moves through the agenda one at a time
    • 4. keeps the team focused
    • 5. establishes appropriate pace
    • 6. facilitates discussions & manages participation
    • 7. helps the team use appropriate decision-making methods
    • 8. helps team evaluate meeting
  6. What are the three discussion phases?
    • 1. Exploratory
    • 2. Narrowing
    • 3. Defining
  7. Exploratory phase
    a pool of ideas is generated for consideration form the team�s collective knowledge, experience and creativity. The objective is to develop creative approaches to a task. Includes brain storming and part one of the nominal group technique.
  8. Narrowing phase
    Ideas are examined, evaluated, compared, sorted & organized and winnowed down. Includes affinity diagrams, multivoting and part two of the nominal group technique.
  9. Defining phase
    Team selects one option. Includes the simple prioritization matrix, the effort/impact grid and decision-making methods like consensus, voting or decision by the leader.
  10. When is it most effective to brainstorm?
  11. Exploratory discussion phase
    Generates ideas. Brainstorming, nominal group technique part 1
  12. Narrowing discussion phase
    Affinity diagrams, multivoting, nominal group technique part2
  13. Defining phase
    Select the solution for ideas left. Prioritization Matrix, consensus, team leader chooses
  14. Problem with Brainstorming
    People wait their turn to share while others are speaking, which is detrimental to the process.
  15. When is it most effective to use the Delphi technique?
  16. When is it most effective to use (NGT) Nominal Group technique?
    When the issue is highly controversial
  17. Brainstorming
    Generates wide variety of ideas from all participants without criticism or judgment.
  18. Delphi Technique
    Uses a series of written surveys to make a decision. Requires large amounts of time.
  19. Ringi Technique
    deals with conflict while avoiding face to face conflict. Document circulated among team members who make comments, edit the document and forward it to other team members. After completing a cycle, the document is re-written and then it re-circulates.
  20. Discussion techniques
    • 1. Brainstorming
    • 2. Nominal Group Technique (NGT)
    • 3. Affinity Diagram
    • 4. Multi Voting
    • 5. Effort/Impact grid
    • 6. Simple prioritization Matrix
    • What are the four basic rules of brainstorming?
    • 1. Criticism is forbidden
    • 2. Free thinking is encouraged
    • 3. Numerous ideas are sought
    • 4. Combine and build on the idea of others
  21. Which two techniques rely on written communication?
    Delphi and Ringi
  22. What are and when do teams use the Effort/Impact Grid and the Simple Prioritization matrix?
  23. Effort/Impact Grid
    • Matrix that compares ideas or options based on the level of impact of the option and level of effort needed to implement the option.
    • 1. Low effort, high impact
    • 2. Low effort, low impact
    • 3. High effort, high impact
    • 4. High effort, low impact
  24. Consensus decision-making drawbacks?
  25. What is a consensus?
    • 1. Everyone understands the decision and can explain why it�s beset
    • 2. Everyone can live with the decision
    • Discussion is punctuated by round-the-group checks to identify areas of agreement and isolate outstanding issues to be addressed
  26. Steps to achieving consensus
    • 1. Discuss the issues
    • 2. Do a check
    • 3. If consensus has not been reached repeat steps 1 and 2
  27. Tips for successful consensus
    • 1. Listen carefully
    • 2. Encourage all members to participate fully
    • 3. Seek out differences of opinion
    • 4. Search for alternatives that meet the goals of all members
    • 5. Avoid changing your mind only to avoid conflict
    • 6. Don�t just argue for your point of view
    • 7. Balance power
    • 8. Make sure there is enough time
    • 9. Check understanding
  28. Know when to use a Gantt chart vs. a Fishbone Diagram. When do teams use Process maps?
  29. If I give you a problem, can you correctly diagram it on a Critical Path or a Fishbone Diagram? Can you separate a potential cause from a result in the diagram?
  30. What type of charts show relationships between tasks?
    Ganntt
  31. Gantt charts
    Help everyone understand what needs to be done when, and how steps affect other steps
  32. Process maps
    Show how responsibilities for tasks move across areas and describe a plan�s sequence of activities
  33. CPM-Critical Path Management Chart
    Method of project scheduling in the initial phases of planning. It is used for mapping task time. (how independent tasks lay over each other)
  34. What is a team warm-up?
    Activities that signal the beginning of the meeting and allow people to focus on the task at hand
  35. What chart in project management is seen as an activity network linking individual tasks while identifying start and end dates and durations?
  36. How do I calculate estimated task duration?
  37. Why use operational definitions and data stratification?
    Operational definitions help ensure that no matter who does the measuring, the results are essentially the same
  38. When should you use stratification?
    to determine which factors have the most impact on a problem and to pinpoint where a problem does and does not occur.
  39. When should you use check sheets?
    To show how frequently something occurs
  40. When should you use concentration diagrams?
    When you need to quickly see where problems cluster
  41. When should you use work-flow diagrams?
    To show the movements of people, materials, documents or information in a process
  42. When detectives try to predict movements of criminals and where they may strike next, they often use which data collection tool?
  43. Which process map is used most effectively in highlighting errors in task handoffs?
    Deployment Process maps
  44. What is the relationship between Opportunity Process maps and FMEA?
    FMEA helps identify process or product failures (non-value added) and then error-proofing and improving
  45. Opportunity maps
    Highlight opportunities for improvement by separating value-added steps from non-value added steps
  46. What is the advantage of tools that help you look at data relationships?
    • 1. narrow a problem
    • 2. detect a change,
    • 3. select an improvement strategy
    • 4. prioritize
    • 5. identify potential causes
    • 6. show result
  47. What is the 80/20 rule? Would you recognize it if I give you a scenario since it applies to lots of different disciplines?
    80% of the troubles come from 20% of the problems
  48. Factors that affect a process over time and that is why teams use Time Plots
    • 1. ingredients decay
    • 2. new employees hired
    • 3. tools and equipment break down
    • 4. suppliers make changes
    • Common cause variation
    • Variation due to large number of small sources of variation (traffic, weather, boarding time, making a bus late).
  49. Special/specific cause variation
    Variation due to specific circumstances (ne driver, accident stopping traffic, making a bus late)
  50. What is �tampering�?
    asking for explanations or making changes based on the individual data point. Tampering can increase the variation in a process by 41%.
  51. Common scatter plot patterns - Can they show cause?
    • 1. no relationship
    • 2. positive relationship�positive slope
    • 3. negative relationship�negative slope
    • frequency plots= 1 relationship at a time
    • scatter plots= 2 relationships at a time
  52. Can you show me how to make general statements into good Problem Statements if I give you a scenario?
  53. Two general approaches to improvement
    • 1. improving daily work
    • 2. problem solving
    • Take me through the Six-Word system in the initial stages of problem solving.
    • What, why, when, how, where, who
  54. 7-Step method focuses on outcomes. What are the steps? Are you able to discuss the use and importance of each step?
    • 1. Project- define the purpose and scope
    • 2. Current situation- focus your effort, examine specifics of the current situation
    • 3. Cause analysis- look for root causes
    • 4. Solutions- analyze, select, and test small
    • 5. Results- goals met? Evaluate execution
    • 6. Standardization- control and monitor
    • 7. Future plans- continuous improvement
  55. 3 Main criticisms against six sigma
    • 1. Lack of originality- not a new idea
    • 2. Role of consultants- people with rudimentary understanding claim their experts
    • 3. Potential negative effective
  56. Six-Sigma was originally used to reduce the amount of error in a process in manufacturing. What are some of the unique features that set it apart from its predecessors in quality improvement initiatives?
  57. Do you know what DPMO is?
    Defects per Million Opportunities (3.4 defects per million opportunities)
  58. What are the outcomes expected from each step of DMAIC in the Six Sigma method?
    • 1. Define-clear statement of intended improvement & how it will be measured
    • 2. Measure-more focused problem statement and baseline process sigma
    • 3. Analyze-tested an confirmed theory
    • 4. Improve-before/after data nalysis, comparison of the plan to the results
    • 5. Control- documentation and training of the new method & a system for monitoring its consistent use
  59. DMAIC
    Define, Measure, Analyze, Improve, Control
  60. There are 16 improvement strategies your book outlines. They support different planning and problem solving steps. Do you know the optimal time to use these strategies?
  61. Force field analysis is a simple approach to examine the relation between driving and restraining forces. Given a scenario or example, can you come up with the driving and restraining forces?
  62. Force Field Analysis
    Examines the relation between driving and restraining forces for change. Increase the driving forces, reduce the restraining forces

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