7. helps the team use appropriate decision-making methods
8. helps team evaluate meeting
What are the three discussion phases?
a pool of ideas is generated for consideration form the team�s collective knowledge, experience and creativity. The objective is to develop creative approaches to a task. Includes brain storming and part one of the nominal group technique.
Ideas are examined, evaluated, compared, sorted & organized and winnowed down. Includes affinity diagrams, multivoting and part two of the nominal group technique.
Team selects one option. Includes the simple prioritization matrix, the effort/impact grid and decision-making methods like consensus, voting or decision by the leader.
When is it most effective to brainstorm?
Exploratory discussion phase
Generates ideas. Brainstorming, nominal group technique part 1
Narrowing discussion phase
Affinity diagrams, multivoting, nominal group technique part2
Select the solution for ideas left. Prioritization Matrix, consensus, team leader chooses
Problem with Brainstorming
People wait their turn to share while others are speaking, which is detrimental to the process.
When is it most effective to use the Delphi technique?
When is it most effective to use (NGT) Nominal Group technique?
When the issue is highly controversial
Generates wide variety of ideas from all participants without criticism or judgment.
Uses a series of written surveys to make a decision. Requires large amounts of time.
deals with conflict while avoiding face to face conflict. Document circulated among team members who make comments, edit the document and forward it to other team members. After completing a cycle, the document is re-written and then it re-circulates.
2. Nominal Group Technique (NGT)
3. Affinity Diagram
4. Multi Voting
5. Effort/Impact grid
6. Simple prioritization Matrix
What are the four basic rules of brainstorming?
1. Criticism is forbidden
2. Free thinking is encouraged
3. Numerous ideas are sought
4. Combine and build on the idea of others
Which two techniques rely on written communication?
Delphi and Ringi
What are and when do teams use the Effort/Impact Grid and the Simple Prioritization matrix?
Matrix that compares ideas or options based on the level of impact of the option and level of effort needed to implement the option.
1. Low effort, high impact
2. Low effort, low impact
3. High effort, high impact
4. High effort, low impact
Consensus decision-making drawbacks?
What is a consensus?
1. Everyone understands the decision and can explain why it�s beset
2. Everyone can live with the decision
Discussion is punctuated by round-the-group checks to identify areas of agreement and isolate outstanding issues to be addressed
Steps to achieving consensus
1. Discuss the issues
2. Do a check
3. If consensus has not been reached repeat steps 1 and 2
Tips for successful consensus
1. Listen carefully
2. Encourage all members to participate fully
3. Seek out differences of opinion
4. Search for alternatives that meet the goals of all members
5. Avoid changing your mind only to avoid conflict
6. Don�t just argue for your point of view
7. Balance power
8. Make sure there is enough time
9. Check understanding
Know when to use a Gantt chart vs. a Fishbone Diagram. When do teams use Process maps?
If I give you a problem, can you correctly diagram it on a Critical Path or a Fishbone Diagram? Can you separate a potential cause from a result in the diagram?
What type of charts show relationships between tasks?
Help everyone understand what needs to be done when, and how steps affect other steps
Show how responsibilities for tasks move across areas and describe a plan�s sequence of activities
CPM-Critical Path Management Chart
Method of project scheduling in the initial phases of planning. It is used for mapping task time. (how independent tasks lay over each other)
What is a team warm-up?
Activities that signal the beginning of the meeting and allow people to focus on the task at hand
What chart in project management is seen as an activity network linking individual tasks while identifying start and end dates and durations?
How do I calculate estimated task duration?
Why use operational definitions and data stratification?
Operational definitions help ensure that no matter who does the measuring, the results are essentially the same
When should you use stratification?
to determine which factors have the most impact on a problem and to pinpoint where a problem does and does not occur.
When should you use check sheets?
To show how frequently something occurs
When should you use concentration diagrams?
When you need to quickly see where problems cluster
When should you use work-flow diagrams?
To show the movements of people, materials, documents or information in a process
When detectives try to predict movements of criminals and where they may strike next, they often use which data collection tool?
Which process map is used most effectively in highlighting errors in task handoffs?
Deployment Process maps
What is the relationship between Opportunity Process maps and FMEA?
FMEA helps identify process or product failures (non-value added) and then error-proofing and improving
Highlight opportunities for improvement by separating value-added steps from non-value added steps
What is the advantage of tools that help you look at data relationships?
1. narrow a problem
2. detect a change,
3. select an improvement strategy
5. identify potential causes
6. show result
What is the 80/20 rule? Would you recognize it if I give you a scenario since it applies to lots of different disciplines?
80% of the troubles come from 20% of the problems
Factors that affect a process over time and that is why teams use Time Plots
1. ingredients decay
2. new employees hired
3. tools and equipment break down
4. suppliers make changes
Common cause variation
Variation due to large number of small sources of variation (traffic, weather, boarding time, making a bus late).
Special/specific cause variation
Variation due to specific circumstances (ne driver, accident stopping traffic, making a bus late)
What is �tampering�?
asking for explanations or making changes based on the individual data point. Tampering can increase the variation in a process by 41%.
Common scatter plot patterns - Can they show cause?
1. no relationship
2. positive relationship�positive slope
3. negative relationship�negative slope
frequency plots= 1 relationship at a time
scatter plots= 2 relationships at a time
Can you show me how to make general statements into good Problem Statements if I give you a scenario?
Two general approaches to improvement
1. improving daily work
2. problem solving
Take me through the Six-Word system in the initial stages of problem solving.
What, why, when, how, where, who
7-Step method focuses on outcomes. What are the steps? Are you able to discuss the use and importance of each step?
1. Project- define the purpose and scope
2. Current situation- focus your effort, examine specifics of the current situation
3. Cause analysis- look for root causes
4. Solutions- analyze, select, and test small
5. Results- goals met? Evaluate execution
6. Standardization- control and monitor
7. Future plans- continuous improvement
3 Main criticisms against six sigma
1. Lack of originality- not a new idea
2. Role of consultants- people with rudimentary understanding claim their experts
3. Potential negative effective
Six-Sigma was originally used to reduce the amount of error in a process in manufacturing. What are some of the unique features that set it apart from its predecessors in quality improvement initiatives?
Do you know what DPMO is?
Defects per Million Opportunities (3.4 defects per million opportunities)
What are the outcomes expected from each step of DMAIC in the Six Sigma method?
1. Define-clear statement of intended improvement & how it will be measured
2. Measure-more focused problem statement and baseline process sigma
3. Analyze-tested an confirmed theory
4. Improve-before/after data nalysis, comparison of the plan to the results
5. Control- documentation and training of the new method & a system for monitoring its consistent use
Define, Measure, Analyze, Improve, Control
There are 16 improvement strategies your book outlines. They support different planning and problem solving steps. Do you know the optimal time to use these strategies?
Force field analysis is a simple approach to examine the relation between driving and restraining forces. Given a scenario or example, can you come up with the driving and restraining forces?
Force Field Analysis
Examines the relation between driving and restraining forces for change. Increase the driving forces, reduce the restraining forces