Plants and Conquest of Land

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Plants and Conquest of Land
2011-03-28 12:43:27
BIO Ch29

Plants and Conquest of Land
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  1. What is Bryophytes?
    • -Liverworts, hornworts, and Mosses
    • -Forms Monophyletic phyla
    • -Earliest of terrestrial Plants
  2. What is Gametophtes?
    • -Role to produce haploid gametes
    • -Produced by mitosis
    • -Gametangia protects developing gametes from drying out and microbial attack
    • -Sperm swim to egg and fuse to form diploid zygote
    • -Zygotes grow into sporophytes
  3. What is antherida?
    round or elongate gametangia producing sperm
  4. What is archegonia?
    flask shaped gametangia enclosing an egg
  5. What are the bryophyte features?
    • Gametophytes dominant generation
    • Sporophytes are dependent on gametophyte-small and short lived
    • Nonvascular or lacking tissues for structual and conduction found in other plants (vascular plant)
  6. Diploid-Spores
    producing sporophyte generation.
  7. Haploid-Gametes
    Producing gametophyte generation.
  8. What are the Sporophytes?
    • Matrotrophy-Zyfotes remain sheltered and fed within gametophyte tissue.
    • Embryophytes-all land plants have mastrotrophic embryos.
    • Become larger and more complex.
  9. What is Gymnosperms?
    • Reproduce using spores and seeds (like angiosperms)
    • Seed plants
    • Seeds protect and provide energy for young sporophyte
    • "Naked Seeds" meaning seeds are not enclosed by fruit
  10. What is Angiosperms?
    • Distinguished by presence of flowers and endosperm
    • To enhance seed production
    • Fruit develop from flowers and enclose seed and foster seed dispersal
    • Endosperm is nutritive seed tissue w increased storage effeciency
  11. First (Land) Plants
    • Inherited some traits from charphycean algae
    • Tissue-producing meristems, sporic life cycle, tough-walled spores, and sporophyte generation
  12. Stems
    • Contain vascular tissue and produce leaves and sporangia
    • Contain phloem and xylem (contains trachids and lignin)
  13. Roots
    Specialized for uptake of water and minerals frm soil
  14. Leaves
    Photosynthetic function
  15. Vascular tissue occur in major plant organs
    stems, roots, and leaves
  16. Cutin
    found in cuticle that helps preven pathogen attack
  17. Wax
    prevents dessication
  18. Stomata
    pores that open and close to allow gas exchange while minimizing water loss