Evolution of Gymnosperms and Angiosperms

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Evolution of Gymnosperms and Angiosperms
2011-03-28 12:58:49
BIO Ch30

Ch30: Evolution of Gymnosperms and Angiosperms
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  1. Pollen
    allows seed plants to disperse male gametophytes
  2. Ovules
    allows seend plants to disperse female gametophytes
  3. Phylum Coniferophyta
    • Conifers are mostly evergreen
    • Simple pollen cones-leaflike structure bearing microsporangia producing pollen
    • More complex ovule-bearing cones
    • Mature pollen released to the wind
  4. Flowers has 4 type organs
    • Sepals
    • Petals
    • Stamens-produce pollen
    • Carpels-produce ovules
  5. Pedicel
    tip of the flower stalk
  6. Perinath
    petals and sepals
  7. Pistils
    • Single and compound carpels
    • Stigma-receives and recognizes pollen
    • Style
    • Ovary-encloses and protects ovules
  8. Coevolution
    Process by which two or more species of organisms influence each other's evolutionary pathway
  9. Pollination coevolution
    • Constancy or fidelity
    • Attract appropriate pollinator using attractive colors, odors, shapes, sizes
  10. Pollination syndrome
    • Some flowers specialized for particular pollinators
    • Birds-odorless red flowers
    • Bees-blue, purple, yellow or white flowers with sweet odor
  11. Seed-Dispersal Coevolution
    • Influenced both plant fruit characteristics and animal seed-dispersal agent
    • Plant may have juicy, sweey fruit w small seed to pass thru gut
    • Plants may signal fruit ripeness with color change